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佛教造像:云冈、龙门、青州

作者:admin 2020-09-03 我要评论

fojiaozailianghanzhijiyoujingyingjiecengchuanruzhongguo,quezuizhongchengweidazhongzongjiao,bingzainanbeisuitangdadaodingsheng。yucitongshi,zuoweifojiaowenhuazaitidezhongguofojiaoyishu,tebieshifojiaozaoxiangzainanbeichaoshiqidafangyi...

佛教在两汉之际由精英阶层传入中国,却最终成为大众宗教,并在南北隋唐达到鼎盛。与此同时,作为佛教文化载体的中国佛教艺术,特别是佛教造像在南北朝时期大放异彩,诞生了举世闻名的敦煌石窟、云冈石窟、龙门石窟和青州龙兴寺佛教造像等艺术精品。公元6世纪,佛教又经由朝鲜进入日本,从而影响了整个东亚地区佛教的发展和佛教艺术的产生。

东魏时期的背屏式佛三尊造像,是典型的北魏晚期秀骨清像式造像,且更能体现出北魏晚期的汉化造像风尚。主佛面相方圆清秀,头身比例协调,身穿褒衣博带式大衣,身材消瘦

 

菩萨头像,北齐,贴金彩绘,高33厘米

 

guyindufoxiangdefazhanjinglilesangegaofeng:guishuangshidai、jiduoshidaiheboluoshidai,erqizhonglianggedouchuyuweijinnanbeichaoshiqi,zheilinggaishiqidezhongguofojiaowenhuayesuizhidedaojidadefazhan,chengweileyigelingrenjingtandelishigaofeng。zaizhongguofojiaodefazhanlichengzhong,shifangyuchuangxintongshibingcun,qiyuanyuyindudezhongguofojiaoshikuzaoxiangyishu,yeyinciyoulezijidutedefazhanguiji。

云冈石窟与犍陀罗文化

gongyuan453nian,gaosengtanyaoyubeiweiwenchengdituobajundeyicixiangyu,gaixielezhongguofojiaodelishi,yeweizhongguofojiaozaoxiangyishuliuxialezhenguidelishiyicun:yungangshiku。zheishizhumingde“mashishanren”degushi。jushuotanyaocongzhongshanyoulidaodangshibeiweidedouchengpingcheng,yejiushijintiandedatong,yudaowenchengdichuxingdechedui。wenchengdibingburenshizheiweigaoseng,dandangtanyaoweicheduirangchudaolushi,yumaquezhangzuixianzhuletanyaodeyifubuzaiqianxing。wenchengdihuantanyaoshangqianxunwen,faxianzheishiweifofagaoshendesenglv,baitaweiguoshi,bingmingtakaizaoyungangshiku,zheicaiyouleyungangshikudediyiqigongcheng,yejiushirujinde“tanyaowuku”。

zheigegushibeijizaizai《weishu·shilaozhi》shang,tongshiyejilulekaizaoshikushideqingkuang:“tanyaobaidi,yujingchengxiwuzhousai,zaoshanshibi,kaikuwusuo,juanjianfoxianggeyi。gaozheqishichi,ciliushichi,diaoshiqiwei,guanyuyishi。”xianzaishanxidatongchengxi46gonglideshilihebeianshanyashang,dongxilianxuyueyigonglidedongkuzhong,di16zhi20kujishi“tanyaowuku”,kaizaoyugongyuan460zhi70nianqianhou,yisanshifozaoxiangzuoweiticai,meigeshikudezhongyangdoudiaokezhegaobishenmu、meiyanxizhangdejudafoxiang,fenbiedaibiaozhebeiweilishishangdewuweihuangdi。

beiweijianguoqian,xianbeizutuobabujihuyufojiaowuyuan。xifangfojiaodeyizaizhongtudadizhagen,libukaisengrenfaguotichu“huangdijiweidangjinrulai”desixiang。genju《weishu·shilaozhi》jizai,xiwangxuanyangfofadefaguobaijianbeiweikaiguohuangdituobaguishi,jiangtabizuodangshirulai,bingshuo“nenghongdaozherenzhuye,wofeibaitianzi,naishilifoer”。fojiaoyoucishoudaobeiweitongzhizhedetuichong。

北魏永安三年的贾淑姿造佛三尊像,面部已经基本看不到北魏传统的秀骨清像特征

 

菩萨立像头像正面,东魏,贴金彩绘

 

yungangshikudi20kudelutiandafo,shiyungangshikudexiangzheng,yeshizuiguangweirenzhideyizuofoxiang,daibiaodeshibeiweizaoqimouyihuangdi,chuanshuoshikaiguohuangdidaowudituobagui。youyudongkudeqianbiyijingbengta,gao13.75midejudafoxiangrujinxianluzaiwai。zheizunshijiazuoxiangweiyudongkuzhongyang,zuoyoushixieshipusalixiang,raneryoucedeyijingwanquanxiaoshi,zhishengxiazuocezheizun。zhufoxigaixiadebuweiyikanbutaiqing,danxiongbuyishangyinweishizhijianying,baocunwanhao。qizaoxinggupo、qishihongwei,xianshichubeifangyoumuminzudepiaohanqiangda,tongshidafomianxingfengyuan,liangerchuijian,bochungaobi,jiashayoutan,daiyouyoubieyuhanrendetezheng。

qinghuadaxuemeishuxueyuandelijingjiejiaoshougaosuwo,yungangshikufojiaozaoxiangqiangdiaoxieshibiaoxian,tebiejiangjiurentidexingtijiegouhebiliguanxi,“zheiqiaqiashihanhuadiquyiqianbushouzhongshidefangmian,qigenyuanzaiguxilaluoma,zhijiededongyinjiushijiantuoluowenhuadedongchuan”。hanhuadiqu,yejiushidunhuangyidong,youzhongyuanwangchaotongzhidediquyixiangbutaizhuzhongxieshiderentizaoxing,zhizhuiqiudatidexingsi。jinguanyeyouqinshihuangbingmayongdetoubuzheiyangxieshidediaosuyishucunzai,danqishentidoushiyongmofanzhizuode,bingqiezheiyezhishitanhuayixian,henkuaixiaoshile。danzaigongyuan5shiji,yinweijiantuoluowenhuadedongchuan,zhongguohanwenhuadiqudezaoxingyishudadaolexiangdangdegaodu。

jiantuoluoweijinbajisitanbeibubaishawapendizhoubiandiqu,yuafuhanxianglin,shuyugudaiyindushiliudaguozhiyi,yinweidilidanyuanshangshuyuyindubankuaidexibeibu,youbeichengweixibeiyindu。gongyuan1shijizhigongyuan5shiji,fojiaozaijiantuoluodiqushengjiyishi。yinweijiantuoluodiqudichudongya、zhongyayuyinducidaludejiaotongyaodao,xila、luoma、bosi、yindudengbutongwenhuadoucengshenkeyingxiangledangdifojiao,xingchenglezhumingdejiantuoluofojiaoyishu。

“jiantuoluowenhuashijiangguxilaluomadezaoxingyishuheguyindufojiaodejiaoyixiangjiehedeyigechanwu。”lijingjiejieshidao,“yalishandadongzhengzhihou,jiangguxiladewenhuachuantongdaidaozheili,houlaibansuizhefojiaodechuanbo,renmenjiangguxilaluomadezaoxingyishu,yuyindudefojiaojiaoyijieheqilai,chanshengjiantuoluowenhua。jiantuoluowenhuaxingqideshijianyezhenghaoshifojiaoxiangzhongguochuanbohefazhandezheiyangyigeshiqi。”

《hafozhongguoshi》tidao,shizhongyadeshangrenyuconghaishangerlai、daodajiangsudemaoyizhelvxianjiangzheizhongxindezongjiaodairuzhongguo。fojiaobeiyinruzhongguodequeqieshijianyibukekao,dandiyigeyouguanfojiaodewenzijilushizaigongyuanqian2nian,dayueshiguoshizhekoushou《futujing》jixihanboshidizi,jiangfojiaochuanruhandai。gongyuan1shijizhi3shiji,dayueshirenjianlideguishuangwangchao,zhengshijiantuoluowenhuadedingshengshiqi。

ranershijishang,suiranfojiaochuanruhanwenhuadiqudeshijianjiaozao,danfojiaodewuzhiwenhua,jiyishudengmenleizaizaoqihaibutaifada。“5shijishangbanyejiyiqian,fojiaozaoxiangshibijiaoshaode,zhuyaoliuxingjintongfoxiang,bingqieshuliangfeichangyouxian。”lijingjieshuo,suizhebeiweitongzhizheduifojiaodedalizhichi,dao5shijixiabanyejiyijiang,shikusiyuandekaizaodaidongledantizaoxiangdefazhan,jiantuoluowenhuachengpiliangdixianghanhuadiquchuanbo,cushihanhuadiquzaoxingyishuhenkuaiquyuchengshu。yizhaoguanfangjilu,daobeiweimoqi,jingneisiyuanduoda13727zuo。

yucitongshi,jiantuoluowenhuazaidongchuandeguochengzhong,bujinjifojiaoyishudailailexieshidezaoxing,haidailailebiaoxianxitongxingfojiaojiaoyituxiangdefangfa。biruyungangshikudiaokezhongduoyoumiaohui“randengfoshouji”degushi,qigushizhujiaoshihoulaiyingshenchengweishijiamounifoderutongmonapo。zuizaoyouguanrandengfoshoujidetuxianglaiziyuegongyuan1shijizuoyoudejiantuoluodiaoke,tongchangtongguo“maihua”、“xianfo”、“bufayanni”he“shenshengxukong”sigeqingjiejinxingbiaoxian,zheizaiyungangshikuzhongyetongyangruci。

buguo,5shijishidejiantuoluowenhuaqishiyijingchuyushuailuoqi,danyinweizaibeiweitongyibeifang、zaicidatonglulusichouzhiluyiqian,zhongyuanbeifangzhangshijianchuyufenliedezhuangtai,daozhifanrongqidejiantuoluowenhuabingmeiyouzaitongshiqidehanhuadiqudedaofazhan。jiantuoluowenhuazaizhongyinliangdidechuanboshijianbiancunzaiyigeshijiancha。

这尊北齐菩萨立像尤能体现青州菩萨造像的高超技艺。青州佛像头部的侧部多是希腊式的高直鼻,菩萨造像则有些是鼻较扁平的中国化面容,此件菩萨侧面体现出外来面目和中国式的结合

 

“秀骨清像”造型风尚的流行

gongyuan494nian,beiweixiaowendiqiandouluoyang,yiciweijie,beiweifojiaozaoxiangchengxianchuxindefengmao,zheizhengshicongnanchaoliuchuanguolaide“xiuguqingxiang”。

“xiuguqingxiang”zuichushiyizhonghuihuafengge,biaoxianweirenwuzaoxingqingquxiaoshou,qichuangzaozheshinanchaosongmingdishidehuangjiagongtinghuashilutanwei。lutanweishigukaizhidexuesheng,ergukaizhidechengmingzhizuo,zhengshihuiyujiankangwaguansi,yongyou“qingleishibingzhirong、yinjiwangyanzhizhuang”deweimojiexiang。lutanweizaijichenggukaizhifenggedejichushang,jiangzheiyifenggefazhanchengshu。tangdaihuihualilunjiahemeixuejiazhangyanyuanzai《lidaiminghuaji》zhongpinglundao:“lugongcanlingzhuomiao,dongyushenhui,bijijingli,ruzhuidaoyan。xiuguqingxiang,sijueshengdong,lingrenlinlin,ruoduishenming,suimiaojixiangzhong,ersiburonghumowai。”zheizhengshi“xiuguqingxiang”delaiyuan。

“xiuguqingxiang”fanyingdeshiweijinnanbeichaowenrenshidafudeshenmeiqingquyuzhelineihan,yixiaoshoudetixing,peiyiweijinwenrensuifengpiaodongdekuanxiuyipao,biaoxianrenwusatuo、chaofandeshentaiyuqidu,zhengshidangshiliuxingdexuanxueqingtanjiasuochongshangdedaogufengyun。weijinshiqidefojiaozaimianlinyingxianglijudadexuanxuesichaoshi,xuanzeyuxuanxueheliudefangshi,liuxialeqingtanxuanxiangdesixianghenji,wei“xiuguqingxiang”fenggedefojiaozaoxiangtigonglelilunyiju。

dangshi,yubeiweiduizhideshinanchaodeqi、liang,doushifenzhongshifojiao,danbutongdeshi,dangshinanchaofojiaoyishudefazhanyushijiadazujiwenshi、huashimendelianxigengweijinmi。dangshixiaowendicongpingchengqiandouluoyang,shishileyixiliedehanhuazhengce,beiweihuangshizaixianghanwenhuadiquxuexizhiguozhicedetongshi,yejilituichongfojiaodefazhanyicujinminzuronghe。bansuizhezheiyiwenhuajiaoliu,nanchao“xiuguqingxiang”desuhuafenggezhujianshenrudaobeifang,xingchengxindefojiaozaoxiangfengshang。

gongyuan500nian,weixuanwudizhaolingzaijintianluoyangnanjiao12gongliwaidelongmenkaizaoshixiang,zheijiushilongmenshiku。zaiyungangshikuhouqi,foxiangyijingshiquletanyaowukushiqineizhongjianzhuang、qianghandetedian,renwuxingxianggengjiaqingshou、xianxi,bingqieyebuzaishizuichumiandaixiaorong、zuijiaoshangyangdeyangmao,biaoqingbiandeyansu,xiandeyouxieqingshougugao。erlingyibiandelongmenshiku,qichuqifoxiangsuiranwuguanhaishixianbeizugaobiliang、dazuibadetezheng,danlianxingquebiandexiazhang,shencaiyeyuefamiaotiaotingba,bingqiekaishigaichuan“baoyibodai”shidehanzushidafufuzhuang。

lijingjiefenxidao:“5shijixiabanyeyungangshikurenwuzaoxingtebiezhuzhongdexingtijiegou、biliguanxi、jiroulongqidengdengfangmian,dao6shijishangbanyewanquandiandaoguolai,xiuguqingxiangqiaqiabuzhongshirentidejiegouhexingtai,ershizhelibiaoxianyizhongxiaosapiaoyideqizhijingshen。”

dang“xiuguqingxiang”“baoyibodai”dezhongyuanfenggeyijingxingcheng,bianyiluoyangweizhongxinxiangwaichuanbo,congluoyangdiqu,daoyungangshiku、maijishan、binglingsi,naizhiliangzhoudiqujidunhuangmogaoku,mobukeyikandaozheizhongfenggedeyingxiang。buguo,jinguan“xiuguqingxiang”danshengyunanchao,danyinweilishishangdejicimiefoyundonghezhanhuo,nenggouliuchuanzhijindenanchaofojiaozaoxiangzuopinsuoshengwuji。chuquelishiwenxianzhongzilixingjiandemiaoshuwai,haiyaocongbeifangdezaoxiangzhongquxunzhao。

zainanbeichaoshiqidebutongdiqu,juyou“xiuguqingxiang”tezhengdefojiaozaoxiang,qibiaoxianxingshilveyoubutong。lirugansubinglingsidezaoxiangyourudaoxuebangangjiantingba,maijishandezaoxiangxiantiaorouhe、qingxiujunmei,yungang、longmendezaoxiangzerengrankeyikandaoxianbeiminzudecuguangheqianghan。danleisideshi,tamendoujuyouxiazhangdelianxingheqingshoudeshencai,chengxianchufojiaojinruzhongguobentuhuahouduichuantongru、daowenhuadexishou。

河南洛阳,龙门石窟(视觉中国供图)

 

来自青州的“东方维纳斯”

zaishandongqingzhoubowuguan,zhanshizheyizunbeiweizhidongweinianjiande“caihuishidiaopusalixiang”,gao187limi,toudaitiejinbaoguan,mianxiangyuanrun,suiranshuangbeicanque,danyichangduanzhuangxiumei,yinqiteyoude“qingzhouweixiao”,beiyuwei“dongfangweinasi”。zheishishoudaojiduowenhuayingxiangdexinfenggedefojiaozaoxiang。

“6shijixiabanye,huozhegengzaoxiede6shijizhongye,yindujiduowenhuatongguohailuchuandaozhongguodongnanyanhaidifang,ranhoujinruzhenggehanhuadiqu。zheishihou,shoujiduowenhuadeyingxiang,yiqianqingshoudeshenmeiyoubeiyizhongxindefengshangtidaile。”lijingjiejieshishuo,“renwudezaoxingbiandefeichangyuanrunyoumei,chuxingtidejiegouwai,haizhuzhongjifudexingtai,rangrengandaoyouxueyourou,jifufuyoudanxing。zheishiqidedaibiaojiushiqingzhoulongxingsifojiaozaoxiang,dangranzheipizaoxiangyeyouyixieqitafengge,danzheigefenggezuiweidianxing,keyibijiaochongfendikandaoyindujiduowenhuadeyingxiang。”

jiduowangchao(320~6shijizhongye)shidezhongguo,zhengchuyudongjinnanchao(317~589nian)yushiliuguobeichao(304~581nian)shiqi,zheiyeshizhongguofojiaoyishujiweichangshengdeshiqi。juyoujiduowenhuatesedefojiaozaoxiang,chuxianzigongyuan4shijihouqi,bingzaigongyuan5shijichuqidedaodalifazhan。qitedianshimianxiangjingmi,liangyanbanzhengbanbi,chengmingxiangzhuang,shentijunhengziran,jintiejiroudeqingbojiashafugaizheliangjiandaoxiazhi,qizhongmotuluoliupaiyonglongqidexiantiaobiaoshiyizhe,quanshendoufugaizheguilvdepingxingxian。zheizhongyifuzhewenjintieshentidebiaoxianfenggezaijiduowangchaojiaozuo“shiyipai”,zaizhongguobeichengwei“caoyichushui”,shibeiqihuajiacaozhongdachuangzaodeyizhongrenwuhuadehuihuafengge。

“zheishihouwomenkandaofotuodezaoxing,buxiangyiqianneiyangshuangmuyuanzheng,doushishuangmuweizheng,jirenyizhongjinrumingxiangdeganjue,zheizhongfenggedeyingxiangyizhichixudaoxianzai,zheidoushuyujiduowenhuadegongxian。”lijingjiebuchongdao。dang534nianbeiweifenliechengdongwei、xiweizhihou,jiduoyishuduihanhuadiqudeyingxianglizhujianzengqiang,“qingzhouzaoxiang”yu“caoyichushui”shidianlidelizheng。shijishang,zaijiduowangchaoquyuquanshengzhiji,jiantuoluoyijibensangshilechuangzuodehuoli。

思维菩萨像,北齐,贴金彩绘,高80厘米

 

jinguanqingzhourujinmingshengbuxian,danzheilicengshigudaizhongguodegujiuzhouzhiyi。《shangshu·yugong》zhongyou“haidaiweiqingzhou”dejizai,yisishicongtaishandaodonghaizhijianzheipianguangmaodeshanchuandadi,xianzaideshandongdiqujibendoushuyuguqingzhou。zuoweidongyiwenhuadefaxiangdi,zheiliyijingyou7000niandefazhanshidedaolekaoguyanzheng,youqishifojiaowenhua,zaiqingzhouyou1700duoniandelishichuancheng。xijinshiqi,fojiaozaiqingzhouyijingkaishixingqi,398nian,zaishandongjianlinanyanzhengquandemurongdeyeduifojiaoshifenqianchengzunchong。

qingzhoudijinnanchao,youbinlindonghai,yongyoutongguonanchaohuozhijieyuyindujiaoliudebianlitiaojian,liuchaoyilai,yunanyangqundao、yinduzhijiandehaibojiaotongwanglaibuchuo。genju《foguoji》jizai,dongjingaosengfaxiancengqianwangtianzhuxunqiujielvqujing,lijing14nianhou,yugongyuan412nianguiguo,cengqinyanmudulejiduoshengshi。tabenlaizhunbeicongyindunixiyadachuanqianwangguangzhoudenglu,jieguobeidafengchuipianlehangxian,congqingzhouzhangguangjundelaoshannanandenglu,bijihuaduozoule20tian。yinweidangditaishoudewanliu,faxianyouzaicijiangfayidongyishu,zhidaodiernianqiucaihuidaojiankang。“faxiansuochudeshidai,baokuoqingzhouzaineidehanwenhuadiqudefojiaoyijingbijiaofadale。danshiqingzhoudeyishushiyindudejiduowenhuatongguodongnanyazheibianchuanguolai,zheishibijiaomingquede。”lijingjieqiangdiao。

congqingzhouchutudeshiwulaikan,beiweiwanqideqingzhoufoxiangyubeiweiwanqibeifangdiqudefenggejibenxiangtong。daodongweishi,suiranqingzhoufoxiangrengdaiyoubeiweiwanqidefengge,mianxiangzhangyuan、shentixiuzhang,danjiduoyishuduiqingzhoufoxiangdeyingxiangyijingkaishichuxian。zheishiqiqingzhouduoshufoxiangjieyiluofaweitoushi,danciqianbeifangdiqudefoxiangjiaoshaochuxianluofa,erdoushijiantuoluoshidewoxuanzhuangfaxinghuomoguangfaxing,danqiroujirengbaochilebeiweiwanqigaolongdetedian。biruchutuyubeiweizhidongweiniandaijiandeyizuobeipingshifosanzunzaoxiang,qizhengtifenggeweibeiweidianxingdexiuguqingxiangshiyang。zhufodemianbujiaoda,toububiaomianshiyouluowen,shenzhebaoyibodai,danjiaoweiqingbotieshen,goulezaixiaoshouxiuzhangdeshentishang。erzuoyouliangbiandepusashentibilizejiaozhufogengweihexie,danyechongmanqingxiuxiaosadefengshang。

zhidaobeiqishiqi,qingzhoufoxiangcaidaliangjieshoujiduoyishudeyingxiang,chuboyidiezhewai,beiqifoxiangdaduoxingtiliuchang,boyixiayinxianjinshiyuanrundejitilunkuo。liruqingzhouchutudeyizunlusheneifajierenzhongxiang,roujidiyuan,luofajuanjuan,mianxiangfengyuan,wuguanjiaoweijizhong,shuangmuweiqi,shenqingningjing。

“guoquyanjiufojiaowenhuadeshihou,youxierenrenweinanbeichaoshisuitangfojiaowenhuadeyigeqianzou,huozheshiyigechubufazhanjieduan。”lijingjiezhichu,“danshijibushizheiyang,nanbeichaosuidaihetangchaoyinggaishifojiaowenhuabingliedelianggegaofeng,dancongguimoshangjiang,tabitangchaogengdayixie。”


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