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顾恺之与魏晋绘画

作者:admin 2020-09-03 我要评论

youyuchuanshijuanbenhuihuashaozhiyoushao,duizheshiliaoxiangxianghuihuademianmao,dagaishilejieweijinyishuyuqitalingyuchengjiuzuidadequbie。erzhei,yeqiaqialiujiwomenwuxiandekongjian,qutansuohexiaxiangneigeshidai。 ...

由于传世绢本绘画少之又少,对着史料想象绘画的面貌,大概是了解魏晋艺术与其他领域成就最大的区别。而这,也恰恰留给我们无限的空间,去探索和遐想那个时代。

莫高窟第103窟,东壁南侧,维摩诘经变

 

登场

tangkaiyuanshijiunian(731),dufu20sui。congzheiyiniankaishidao34sui,dufujinxinglesancizhangtuzhuangyou,diyicibianshiwuyuezhidi。tacongluoyangchufa,jingshuiludaodajiangning,yejiushijintiandenanjing,weijinnanbeichaoshiqidejiankangcheng。zheiyixing,dufujieshilejiangningrenxudeng。liangrentongling,xiangliaoshenhuan,zuoweibendirendexudengbiandaizhedufubianxunjiangningchengguji。zaiqinhuaihebeiandewaguansili,dufuzhongyukandaolezheifucongqianzaigujizhongchuxiandeweimojiexiangbihua,shijin400nianqiandongjinhuajiagukaizhisuohui。huazheifubihuashi,gukaizhiyuneishidedufunianjixiangdang,20suichutou。

tandaozheifubihua,zongbansuizhegukaizhinianqingqishengyoucaiqiguorendegushi。dongjinxingningernian(364),waguansihaizaixiujian,sisengsichuqingrenjuanqianchoukuan,quekunnanzhongzhong,meirennengjuandao10wanqian,nianqingdegukaizhichukoubianshibaiwan。

genju《jinshu》dejizai,gukaizhishijinlingwuxiren,zizhangkang,xiaozihutou。《shishuoxinyu》lishuodangshijiangnanyousidawangzu:zhangwen、zhuwu、luzhong、guhou,genjugeshidetedian,gushishi“hou”。suirandaolegukaizhizheiyibei,gushiyizuzhongyimeiyouxiangsanguoshiqidongwuzhongchenguyongzheiyangdexianherenwu,dangukaizhiyijiushimingmenchushen,qifuguyuezhicengdanrenzhoubiejia、shangshuyoucheng。zaidongjindeshizuzhengzhixia,zheiyangdechushenweitajishenweijinshangliushehuitigonglebiyaotiaojian。

danzheiyebushitasuikoushuochujuankuanbaiwandeyuanyou。gukaizhibazijiguanzaiwaguansiyigeduoyue,huizhizheifuweimojie。zaicizhiqian,weimojiejihubuhuichuxianzaifojiaohuihuazhong,erzheifubihuazhihou,gukaizhikaipileyizhongweimojiexiangdefanshi。huawanzhutideshenquhebeijingzhihou,haichayanjing,gukaizhibianduisengrenshuoyaoshirenqianlaicanguan,diyitianlaiguancixiangzhe,juan10wanqian,diertiankejuan5wanqian。dangshigukaizhisuirannianqing,danyiyouxiecaiming,renmenfenfenqianlaiguanshang。zaizhongrencanguanqijian,gukaizhijiweimojiehuashangleyanjing,siyuanyechoudeletaxuxiade“baiwanqian”。zheiduangushishizhangyanyuan《lidaiminghuaji》zhongsuojizaide,rujinyishigukaizhichudengjianghudechuanshuo,daizhejiqiangdexijuxingchuchang。

dufuduigukaizhideweimojiexiangchongmanjingyang,linlikaijiangningshi,xudenghaijiangzijizhenzangdeyifenmobensongjiledufu。47suidedufuzaicilaidaojiangningshi,xiexia“hutoujinsuying,shenmiaodunanwang”deshijulaizansonggukaizhi。zhihouderenshengzhong,tazhishaozailiangshoushizhongtidaogukaizhihezheifubihua。

huiyouweimojiexiangdewaguansiqiangbi,yutanghuichangwunian(845)fananzhijibeiyizhiganlusi,dazhongqinian(853)zhuanruneifu,tangwanghouzebufucunzai。dufushenghuodeshengtangdaowantang,wanyugukaizhidedongjinjiangjin400nian。zheijin400niandeshijianli,zhongguohuihuadefazhanyouweijinde“xiuguqingxiang”zhishengtangdehualihongwei,wulunliuxingdefenggeruheyanbian,weijinzhifengzaitangdairengbeishouzhuipeng,ruguoshuotangtaizongduiwangxizhi《lantingxu》he《leyilun》dezhenshishihuangjiadequwei,neimedufuduigukaizhiweimojiexiangdemilianbiankeyidingchengdushangdaibiaozhedangshishirendexihao。

顾恺之《洛神赋图》卷(宋摹,局部)(故宫博物院供图)

 

名士与画家

gukaizhiweirenledaodehuihuashengyacongweimojiexiangkaishi,zaicihou40yunian,tachuangzuolebushaozuopin,tangdaipeixiaoyuan《zhenguangongsihuashi》zhongshoulu17jian,zhangyanyuan《lidaiminghuaji》zhongshoulu29jian38fu,sanjianyuqitadianjizhongdeshangyou20yujian。raner,zaiweijinshiqi,gukaizhiheqitahuajiayiyang,bingfeiweilehuihuaerhuihua,yishudemudecongbudanchun,ershizuoweiyizhongfuwujizhi,weizongjiao、weigongting、weizhugongerhua。huihuashiyizhongfeigerenhuadeshehuigongju,danweijinshiqidezhongyaozhichuzaiyu,yishuzheigegongjudeshehuidiweibuduantisheng。huahuaderenzheigequnti,zaihandaihaizhinengkanzuoshigongjiang,suoweihuajiang。congweijinkaishi,huajiangyiranshiyigewendingdequnti,danlingyigequnti——gongtinghuajia、shirenhuajia,zhengzaifazhanzhuangda,chuxianlewomenxianzairenweide“huajia”zheiyishenfen,gukaizhibianshiqizhongzhiyi。

zheiyutadejiashimibukefen。gukaizhishouxianshiyigemingshi,qicicaishihuajia。jishihuodeleshenfenshangderenke,gukaizhiyewufachengweiyigeyouzaiyouzai、zhuisuixinxingdehuajia,taderushi,caiyourenshangshitadecaineng,jitatigongyigeyihuihuaweishengdeturang。zheibianshiweijindexianshi。

gukaizhiyishengzhuisuiguosangezhugong。taiheyuannian(366),huawanwaguansiweimojiexiangzhihou,tabeihuanwenyinweidasimacanjun,congcidedaoquanchenhuanwendebihu,yekaishileyudongjinshangcengshehuidejiaowang。huanwencenglvjunjiaomiechenghanzhengquan,yousancibeifa,danzongdelaishuo,congwenhuayiyishanglaikan,zheigejiecengshi“weijinfengliu”dezhujiao,danzaizhengzhishang、junshishangtamendecaiganyujianshuhaishiwufayutamenzaiwenhuashangdechengjiuxiangbi。gukaizhizaihuanwenmuxiazuole8nianzuoyoudemuliao,qishimeizuoshenmejutideshi,daoshishichanggenhuanwentantaoshuhua。ningkangyuannian(373),huanwenbingshi,gukaizhifeichangbeitong,juedezijiwuchukezaiyifu,fushixiedao:“shanbengminghaijie,yuniaojiangheyi?”zheishitabudao30sui。

zaigukaizhiyishengdesanweizhugongzhong,yuhuanwendeguanxishiqinjinqiexianghuxinrende,houliangwei,yiweishiyinzhongkan,lingyiweishihuanwenzhizihuanxuan。gukaizhizaitamendemuxiashi,jizheixiezhengzhirenwu、mingrenxianshihualebushaohuaxiang。jijitaweilaideyishuzaoyidaxialejichu,tongshiyelalongleguanxi,rangzijideanshenzhisuogengwenguyixie。dongjinzhumingdezhengzhijia、junshijiaxieanjiuduigukaizhishifenshangshi,chengtaderenwuhuaxiang“cangshengyilai,weizhiyouye”。

kexizheixiehuaxiangrujindoubufucunzai,shenzhilianmobenhuolinbenyemeiyoucunshi。danconglishidejilushangkan,weijinmingshixiangjishixianxiangshigukaizhizuopinzhongbizhongzuidade,errujinwomennengkandaode《nvshizhentu》《luoshenfutu》zheiyangdezhangjuanzhou、duochangjing、duorenwudezuopinfanershifeichangshaojiande。chuletajifuzuoguodesanweizhugongdouhuaguoxiaoxiangzhiwai,qitaxianglangyawangshidewangrong,taiyuanwangshidewanganqi,chenjunruanshideruanji、ruanxian、ruanxiu,hedongpeishidepeikai,chenjunxieshidexiekun,tayedouhuaguo。zheixiehuaxiang,youxieshijiazuzidiweilejinianxianrenerzhuanmenqinggukaizhihuade,youxietongdaizhirenzekenengshigukaizhizhudongweizhi,chengweimouzhonglishangwanglaideyishi。

gukaizhishigeqingshanghengaoderen,suowei“sanjue”——caijue、huajue、chijue,qizhong“chijue”leisiyudazhiruoyudeyisi,takeyizaifuzadedongjinshangliushehuiqishenbingshoudaozhongyong,ziranyoudushanqishendeyimian。zuiyouqudeshitayuhuanxuandejiaowang,suiranhuanxuanshihuanwendeerzi,qianzhugongyinzhongkanyeyilishi,danhuanxuanduigukaizhirengyoujiebeizhixin。yiri,gukaizhiwaichu,jiangyigezhuangyoumingguishuhuashouzangdexiangzijiaojihuanxuandaiweibaoguan。shurizhihouhuilai,dakaixiangzihoufaxiankongle,gukaizhizhidaoshihuanxuanjiangshuhuazhanweijiyoule,danweilejixuanshenyuhuanxuanmuxia,bianzhinengzhuangfengmaisha,shuo“miaohuatongling,bianhuaerqu,rurenzhidengxian”。zanghuaruxianrenfeizou,yeqiahaoqiheleweijinshiduixiuxianshudezhuipeng,dantazhidaotayuzheiweizhugongdeguanxibukenengzaixiangyuqifuzhijianneibanqinmile。

cishidegukaizhiyishiwuxunlaozhe,likaihuanxuanzhihou,tabianjihubuzaihuihua。renshengdezuihoushinianli,tabazijichenxianzaidaojiaozhong,zaixiulianxianshulizhaodaozuihoudelequ。zhongnianyihougukaizhixieguoyipian《yuntaishanji》,xietaruhemiaohuiyuntaishanshangzhangdaolingrangtadexintumianduixuanyademolian,zilixingjian,gukaizhiyijingbayuntaishanxiangxiangchengdaojiajieduzhongdeyangzi,dongyouqinglong,xiyoubaihu,yunwuliaoraodeshanjianyouzhanchiyufeidefenghuang。zheifuhuazhitingliuzaiwenzishang,quejihoulaideshanshuihuafazhanliuxiahenduoqifa。erduiyugukaizhilaishuo,daojiaohuoxushizuihaodeguisu。

顾恺之《女史箴图》(局部)

 

从“绘”到“画”

tidaorujinchuanshidegukaizhizuopin,《nvshizhentu》《luoshenfutu》《lienvrenzhitu》shiyouchuanshimobende。qizhong《luoshenfutu》youmingdebanbenyousige:yishiqianlongsuodingdediyijuan,huashangwutilufuwen,xianzanggugongbowuyuan;ershiqianlongsuodingdedierjuan,《shiquxupianzhuyu》zhongchengsongrensuomoben,huashangfenduanti《luoshenfu》yuanwen,xianzangliaoningbowuguan;sanshizangyumeiguofuliermeishuguandesongdaimoben;sishiyijiannansonghoumoben,yezangyugugongbowuyuan。zheisijiandoubeirenweishisongdaihuojiejinsongdaidemoben,ciwaihaiyoujifengengwanjindemoben。er《nvshizhentu》rujinzhiyouliangjian,yijianshishouzangyudayingbowuguandechuanweigukaizhizhenjidebanben,danyinzhuangbiaowenti,xianzaidezheifubeibiaozailemubanshang,erqieyuanzuoyou12duan,xianzaizhisheng9duan;lingyijianshishouzangyugugongbowuyuandesongdaimoben。《lienvrenzhitu》debeisongmobenyeshouzangyugugongbowuyuan。

gukaizhiliujiwomendezuopin,zhujiaodoushinvxing,chule《luoshenfutu》shigenjucaozhi《luoshenfu》erhuadeaiqingticai,qitaliangjianzuopindoushiguixundangshinvxingxingweideshuojiaoxinghuihua,yixiaoduanyigegushihuorenwuchuanlianqilai,jiangshunvxingdepinxingdexing。yuankangernian(292),xijinzhanghuazuo《nvshizhen》,tayongyiweinvxingjiangshujiaohuadeshijiao,yifangmianjiaoyufufuzhidao,yifangmiananchidangshiquanchencuanluan。gukaizhihua《nvshizhentu》yejieyonglegushiwenbendeyongyi。

zheisanjianzuopin,shiwomenxianzainengkandaodejiaowanzhengdeweijinnanbeichaoshiqijuanbenhuihuadeyangmao,qitazuopinjihudouyiyishi,womenzhinengconggujiwenzizhongxiangxiangyuanzuodefengmao,huoshijiezhudunhuangbihuaheqitamushibihualaishituhaiyuangengduodangshihuihuadeyangmao。danyigukaizhiweidaibiaodeshirenhuihuayucunshibihuashiliangtiaowanquanbutongdefazhanxiansuo,xinghao,womenhainengkandaoyishangjifu。

yugukaizhizaihuihuashishangdediweixiangdang,caobuxingshisanguoshiqidongwuzuiyoumingdehuajia,tahuajichaoqun,youzhe“huafozhizu”deminghao。zhikexi,womenxianzaikanbudaocaobuxingdezhenjiyangmao,zhinengzhidaotahebeiqidehuajiacaozhongdadehuafengpoyouxiangsi,weihoushikaichuangle“caoyichushui”deyangshi。dancaobuxingbushiyigeshirenhuajia,chushenpingping,yebushichaotingdeyuyongjiangren,zaidangshitasuandeshangshiyigepoyouxiemingwangdeziyoudezhuanyehuajia。danyouyubushishiren,tahennanxianggukaizhineiyangzhenzhengjinrushangliushehui,huodegenggaodeshehuishengyu。zheiyeshiweijindexianshi。

ruguojiangtongshiqideshujiayuhuajiaxiangbi,huajiadeshehuidiweiwangwangshidiyushujiade,yinweishujiashouxianshishiren,shufazeshirichanggoutongjiaoliudebibeijineng,shishirende“gangxu”,erhuihuazeshijinshangtianhuazhiwu。danghuihuazhujianchengweishirenjiecengdexihao,bianshihuihuabaituo“jiangzuo”diweidekaishi。xiangcaobuxingzheiyangdezhiyehuajia,tamenyongyouduihuihuasikaohepanduandezhudongquan,zaihuihuashiconghuajiangdaohuajia、congjiangzuoshangshengdaozuopindeguochengzhong,qidaolezhiguanzhongyaodezuoyong。

danjinjinshishenfendiweidetisheng,bingbuzuyiranghuihuadediweitisheng。weijinshiqiduihuihuagengzhongyaodegongxianzaiyu,zhujianxingchengleyitaoshiyongyuzhongguohuihuajifaheshenmeideliluntixi,zaigegehualundelunshuxia,“shen”“gu”“qi”“yun”chengweiyigeliluntixidehexin。erzheigeliluntixi,zhichengzhehoulaigegechaodaihuihuadefazhan,zhongguohuihuadeduteshenmeibiaozhunyejiucixingcheng。

daole6shiji,nanbeichaozhijiandejiaoliuriyipinfan,jiankangrengshiyishuzhongzhen,nanbeihuihuajinxingleyichangkongqianderonghe。6shijizhongqi,gukaizhidejichengzhemenzaijiangnanyidaiyijingxingchenglexiangduigudingderenwuhuafengge,cishi,beifanghuajiazhengzaimanmanjieshoudeguochengzhong。yangzihuashibeifanghuajiadedaibiao,tadezuopinyejibenbuzaicunshi,danxuejieyouyizhongshuofarenwei,shanxitaiyuanlouruimudemuzangbihuazhong,kenengshangbaocunleyangzihuadehuihuafengge。ruguoxianzaixiangkandaoweijinhuihuademinjianfengmao,mushibihuashizuihaodexuanze,yeshiwomenxianzainengkandaodemianjizuidadeweijinhuihua。suiranyouyushirencanyuhuihuahou,huihuadegongnengzhengzaifashenggaibian,congerdaibiaoyigeshidaizuixianjindeyishujingshen,danzheigefanweishifeichangyouxiande,gengduodehuihuabingmeiyouneimeqianwei,huajiangrengshizhuli,chuantongdemushibihua、zongjiaobihuarengshizheigeshidaigengweijingzhundeshehuisuoying。


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