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建安七子和文学风骨

作者:admin 2020-09-03 我要评论

yiqunduocaiduoyideqingnianren,zhengzaiyechengyinlingzheyizhongjingzhishenghuofangshi,tamenshengzaiyigedongdangqueyechongmanzhuanzhededashidai,chuangxiayigeqiansuoweiyoudegeju,yejiushi《canglangshihua》zhongshuodejiananfenggu。...

一群多才多艺的青年人,正在邺城引领着一种精致生活方式,他们生在一个动荡却也充满转折的大时代,创下一个前所未有的格局,也就是《沧浪诗话》中说的“建安风骨”。

 

清刊本《三国志像》,分别描绘的是曹操仓亭破袁绍,曹操大宴铜雀台,魏太子曹丕秉政(从左至右)(FOTOE供图)

 

酾酒临江,横槊赋诗

jiananjiunian(204),caocaocongyuanshaoerziyuanshangshouliduoxiayecheng,zhongyuyoulezijidedabenying。

yechengshidangshijizhoushoufu,zaijintianhebeilinzhangxianyuhenananyangshizhongjian。xiandihekuileizhengquanrengzaixucheng,danyechengchengleshijidequanlizhongxin。caocaozaizheilixianhoushoufengchengxiang、weigong、weiwang,jianwenchangdian、zongmiao,xingxiupaishuixitong,bingjianzaolezhumingdexuanwuchi,yijitongque、jinhu、bingjingsanzuogaotai。

qizhongtongquetaishizuidadeyizuo。taigaoshizhang,ji23mi。taishangyouyizhidatongque,“shuyifenqi,shiruofeidong”。yongqingrenwuqidehuashuo,“wudizhizuo,wubujingmiao,gutongquetai,houshideqipianwa,youzhibaijin”。miaohuitongquetaiderenjiangqibizuoshanfeng,jiashangtashangmiandiaolianghuadongdecenglou,xingchengleyifuzhuangguandetujing,meiyoubiedejianzhukeyiyuzhibijian。cihoucaocaojingchangdengshangtongquetai,gaotaiyuanwang,yuerzimenyiqifushi,zaidayanqunchen。

zhizhicaocaoqushiqian,tazaiyilingzhongdoudianjizhetongquetaidenggaofushidemeihaoshiguang。meimeigaotaizhishang,caocaojiubuzaishineiweilengkuwuqing、jiaozhaduoduandelingzhu,ershiyigexionghuaibaofudewenrenle。jinguancaocaode《dengtaifu》xianyisanyi,danzheiyichangjingquechenglehoulaiwenrenmenzuiaichuangzuodemutizhiyi。

qishizaonianliannianzhengzhanshi,dushuhexiezuo,doushicaocaosuoai。《sanguozhi》shuocaocao“yujunsanshiyunian,shoubusheshu,zhouzejiangwuce,yezesijingchuan,denggaobifu”。sushi《chibifu》shuocaocao“shijiulinjiang,hengshuofushi”。tabujindubingshu,youtapizhude《sunzibingfa》chenglelishimingben,daijundazhangshi,yehuisuijundaizheledui,meimeizhanzhengjianxianyingzhazhaihou,yingzhongshejiuyanweilaobuxiadetongshi,tahuirangleduiyanzouzijichuangzuodeshige,rangsuijunwenchenmenzuoshiyinchang。

caocaoduiyinlepoyouxiuyang,zaonianjiuaizuoshi,tongguogaibianlefujigushilaishufazijideganqing。handaiqiangshengshidewenxueyigongtingcifuweizhu,jingchangshiyongkuazhangdeyuyanlaimiaoshuhuangdidetongzhiyijiguodoudeshengkuang。buguosuizhehanshishuaibai,yizhonglaiziminjiandeshigexingshichuxian,zheixielefushidoushigengshihegeyaoyinchangdewuyanshi,baituolecifugaodufuzadewenxuegeshi,cihuijiandanpingshi,duanluoyechangchangyuyinlvxianghe,danneirongwangwangshentouchushenghuozaibuanshitaizhongshumindebeihuanlihe。

caocaohesuitazhengzhandewenchen,duizheixielefuhegushidequdiaoershunengxiang,yushicaiyongzheileishigedexingshihequdiao,zaitianrutamenzijideci,zhibuguoshigedeneirongbianchenglezhongyuanbenchizhengzhandeshachang。yucishiqitacizaohualidecifuzuopinxiangbi,caocaogaibiandeduanshitanlverzhijie,zhanxianletajiqijijidexinjing。“donglinjieshi,yiguancanghai”,“beishangtaixingshan,jianzaiheweiwei”。

caocaozuiyoumingdeyishoushi《duangexing》,yu《kuhanxing》yiqi,shibei《wenxuan》shouludeliangshouzuopin。“duijiudangge,renshengjihe?piruchaolu,qurikuduo。”zheishiyishousiyanshi,haiyinyongle《shijing》zhongdeliangju。caocaojiangshigedewenxuexingyufuzaxingdadatigaole,zaitadeyingxiangxia,zhanchangchengleyunyuzheiyixinwenxueliupaideturang,wenwujianbeidecaocaobianshijiananwenxuedeqidian,er“congjunwenxue”yejiuchenglezuizaodejiananwenxue。

jiananqizicaocaochuzhanyechengshi,yechengjiuyouchengqiang,dongxiqili,nanbeiwuli,mianji3.7pingfanggongli,yuzhixiangbi,donghanjiudouluoyangchengneimianji10pingfanggonglizhida。luoyangderenkoudagai50wan,chengqiangzhiwaidejiaoqudouzhuzheren,eryechenglianchengneidoushangweizhuman。yushicaocaozaidalijianshedouchengdetongshi,haiwangluoleyipiwenrenmingshi,xiwangjianliqiyigeyuxiandichaotingxiangpipeidechaoting。caocaozishenshiyimingyouxiudeshiren,yincinenggouxinshangqitarendecaihua,suirantaduidirenshoula,danduizijiyouliderenzezhanxianchujidudekuanronghelishu。

chenlinjiushiyigelizi。tachushengyuzhangjiangkouguangling,shidaxuezhecaiyongdexuesheng,cengshidajiangjunhejindeshouxia。taduihejinzhaolandongzhuorujingfachuguotixing,houtoubenlejizhouyuanshao。tawenbihenhao,cengzaiyuanshaoyucaocaodazhanqiancaodaoxieguotaofaxiwen,damacaocaoquanjia:caocaozufucaotengtanlan,fuqincaosongkenqiubeishouyang,erhouyouyongqianmailegaoguanhoujue,caocaobenrenshi“zhuiyanyichou”,jitaijiandequanzi。

zheipianxiwenquanwenjizhang,yinwenbijihao,houlaibujinbeishouru《houhanshu》《sanguozhi》,shenzhihaibeishouru《wenxuan》li。caocaodangshiyedudaolexiwen,xiangbiyezuochulepanduan。yinciwunianguohou,dangjibaiyuanshangzuizhongfuluchenlinshi,caocaozhishizhizeta:marenmadaobenrenjiuxingle,hebiyaoshangshengdaofuqinzufuni?ranhoujieshoulechenlindedaoqian,zairenmingtaweizijidemishuzheiyiminganguanzhi,chenlinhoulaiyushufajiaruanyuyiqi,fuzeqicaogongwendegongzuo,weiguohenduoguojiajiwenjian,douchuzichenlinzhishou。chenlinsuozuoneipianxiwenliuchuanzhijin,ercaocaodangniandekuanrongyejiubeiliuchuanzhijinle。

jiuzheiyang,caocaobuduanshuliqizijilixianxiashidexingxiang,laibiaodazijiyudongzhuo、liangji、douwu、hejinzheijiweiciqianzhangwodaquanderenbutong。jijuzaiyechengdewenrenyashiyuelaiyueduo,youshideshizumenduicaocaolingyanxiangkan,tongguozhanzhenghuodedequanliqudelezaiwenhuashangdezhengtongxing。

caocaowannian,erzicaopixiexia《dianlun》,zaizheibujuzhuzhong,tajiangcaocaozhengquanshouxiadeqiweiwenchenmingshiwangcan、liuzhen、xugan、chenlin、ruanyu、yingyanghekongrongtuiweidaibiaorenwu,bingdiyicibatamenmingmingwei“jiananqizi”。yuhoulaidezhulinqixianbutong,jiananqizibingbushiyigexiaotuanti,ershicaopigerenxuanchulaide。caopishenaikongrongdezuopin,bingjiangtatuishangqizizhishoudeweizi。

biqitarendounianzhangdekongrong,shuyuzuizaojiarucaocaozhenyingdeyipiwenshi。tadejiazuyuanzikongziyimai,wenxianzhongliuxiaguoxuduobiaoxiantaxiaoshihouzaoshudeqiwenyishi。tatianfuguorenyouaoman,yinganyufashengqieguandianduliermingshengzaiwai,meirenganzhaoreta。tacengzaiwaifangbeihaixiangshishituzaicaocaoyuyuanshaoliangfangzhijianbaochidulixing,danzaijiananyuannian(196),yuanshaodezhangziyuantanduitafaqijingong,zhanshichixushuyue,wenxianjizaikongrongduigongshihaobuzhongshi,ningketourutadewenxuechuangzuoheqingtanzhong,dangdirenzuizhonggongrutadeshoufu,tacaipaoqiqizi,toubenlecaocao。tongniancaocaoyinghanxiandidaoxuchengbingkongzhiledonghanchaoting,kongrongbeihanchaotingrenmingweijiuqing。

zaicaocaoshijizhangquandehanchaoting,kongrongjingchangpingjiezijiyuanbodegudianzhishipipingshenzhijifengcaocao。caopiyingquyuanxidefurenzhenshishi,kongrongxiangcaocaoyinyongle《shangshu》zhongjizaidewuwangkeshanghoujiangshangwangdejiqiecijixiongdizhougongdegushi。yinweikongrongzaixuejiemingshengzaiwai,suoyicaocaohenxiangxinta,danhoulaiquefaxianlishishishibingfeiruci,wuwangshasilezheigenvren。ciwaikongronghaicengchaoxiaocaocaozaiwuhuanzhizhandeshengli,pipingtadejinjiuling,bingtichutayinggaituihuizijidefengyi。kongrongdezheixiemiaoyuhexiongbianyizaijicaocaodailaijiongpo,dongyaohouzhezaixuejiehelunlishangdequanwei,zuizhongcaocaobeipozuochujueding:jibiandailaibuhaodeshengyu,yeyaochusikongrong。

duizijidewenchen,caocaoweimiaodiweichizhekongheyukuanrongzhijiandepingheng,tacengrangwangcansuitaxizhengzhanglu,fanhuishi,wangcanxiexia《congjunshi》:“congjunyoukule,danwensuocongshei。suocongshenqiewu,yandejiulaoshi。”zheishoucongjunshixiederucileguanzixin,xianranduoshaoshoudaocaocaodeyingxiang。

曹操被视为建安文学的起点

 

 

孔融被曹丕推为建安七子之首

 

 

陈琳降曹是曹操礼贤下士的典型例子(本组图片:FOTOE供图)

 

建安文学圈子的聚会与诗赋

zaiyechengqunxiandehuanjingxia,donghanmonianjinruleyigewenxuehexueshuyichangfanrongdeshiqi。caocaoquelideshangwenchuantong,zaitaerzicaopihecaozhineilideyiyanxu。ruguoshuojiananwenxueshiyucaocao,qifazhanzhuangda,zeyintadelianggeerzi。

jiananshiliunian(211),caocaofengcaopiweiwuguanzhonglangjiangjifuchengxiang,fengcaozhiweipingyuanhou,zheishicaocaoduilianggeerzirenghaiyishitongren。tajinshenditiaoxuanfuzuoerzimenderenxuan,wuguanzhonglangjiangxiashe“wenxue”guanzhi,xuganshouren,jiananqizimenjuhuiyuci。caopi、caozhibiwangcan、xuganyijiqitawenshitongliaomenxiaoshiduosui,danshenweicaocaozhizi,diweiteshu。caocaoxiwangerzimennengyuzheixiebowenduoshi、caohanchengzhangdemingshiyiqi,“xingzelianyu,zhizejiexi”,zicicaopi、caozhibianchenglejiananwenxuequanzidehexin。

jinguanliangrenshijichengrendejingzhengguanxi,dantamenhaishichangjuzaiyiqiyanyin,zaiyechengdegongdianzhonghejiaowaiyouwan,chuangzuochuhuameideshifu,wanglaiyingda。

caopizai《yuxuanwupozuo》zhongshuo,“xiongdigongxingyou,quchechuxicheng”。zai《yuwuzhishu》zhong,tazehuiyiletamenchengchejiamayecanxiaqiyouledechangjing,“meizhishangzhuoliuxing,sizhubingzou,jiuhanerre,yangerfushi”。juhuiheshifuyingchouxingshengqilai,shitanjiuzheiyangxingchengle。zheizhongjuhuishang,wangwanghuizhaochuyixietimu,runvshen、huai、midiexiang、choulin、xijideng,dajiafentouquxieshi,zuojingsai。《wenxuan》zhongshoululeyizubeiguileiwei“gongyan”deshizuo,qizhongsanshoudezuozhefenbieshicaozhi、liuzhen、yingyang,sanshoushidouwanchengyucaopijubandeyiciyanyin,caopizijiyezuoleyishou《furongchizuo》。

yiqunduocaiduoyideqingnianren,zhengzaiyechengyinlingzheyizhongjingzhishenghuofangshi,tamenshengzaiyigedongdangqueyechongmanzhuanzhededashidai,shoucaocaofuzidejili,“kangkaiyirenqi,leiluoyishicai”,zaiwenxueshangjijingzhengyehezuo,chuangxiayigeqiansuoweiyoudegeju,yejiushi《canglangshihua》zhongshuode“jiananfenggu”。shigezaiwenxuexingshangkaishiyucifubingjiaqiqule。danjiananqizidechengjiubingbujinjintingliuzaishige,chenlinheruanyusuiyoushigecunshi,dantamenzhugongsanwen——baokuojilu、xinjianhegongwen。yingyang、liuzhen、xugandeshifuyecunshihenshao,danyingyangyinbianjileyouguanweiqidelunzhu《yishi》wenming,xugande《zhonglun》shoujileshupianzhexuewenzhang,qiangdiaorujialinianyuxianshidemingshizhifu,liuchuanzhijin。

jiananershiernian(217),caopibeizhengshiliweiweiguotaizi。caocaodangshiyijing63sui,bingjiangzailiangnianhouqushi。zaizheiliangnianli,caopixiexiajuzhu《dianlun》,weijiananwenxuejinxinglequanmianzongjie。shizhisuoweijiananwenxue,shiyidonghanxiandinianhaojiananweiming。caopijieshaolezou、yi、shu、lun、shi、fudengwenzhangticai,liejulejiananqizi,duitamenmeigerendewenxuejinxingpinping。taqiangdiaowenxuedejingshenzaiyu“qi”,bingzaizuihoushuodaowenxuedeyiyi:“gaiwenzhang,jingguozhidaye,buxiuzhishengshi。nianshouyoushierjin,ronglezhihuqishen,erzhebizhizhichangqi,weiruowenzhangzhiwuqiong。”

handaiyiruxuewei“jingguozhidaye”,ercaopibiaodaleyiwenzhangqudairuxuediweidexiwang,jiangwenzhangdejiazhitaigaodaotongzhiliguojiayiyangzhongyao。yexuduiyuxianzaidewomen,hennanlijieyiwenzhangqugaibianguojiazhibendexiangfa,danduiyuzailuanshizhongshenketihuirenshengbeikubingyibubuwanchengguojiatongyidecaoshifuzilaishuo,gesongjianguojinglihejingshendeshigehewenzhang,yinggaihennanyuzhiliguojiafenkai,yuzhuanshunjishideronghuafuguixiangbi,nengchuanyuhoushidewenzhangcainengshirenhuodeyongsheng。

caopibeilitaizidetongyinianbaofaleyichangdawenyi,jibenjinglileyidairendeshijian,qiyingxiangyeshihuimiexingde。jiananqizizhongdesirenxugan、chenlin、liuzhen、yingyangdousiyuzheichangwenyi。qiyuchengyuanzhong,kongrongheruanyufenbiezai9nianqianhe5nianqianqushi。wangcanzeyudawenyidetongyinian,zaicaocaogongdasunquandezhanyizhongqushi。chuanshuocaopitebiejingzhongwangcan,yinwangcanshengqianxihuantinglvjiao,wangcansihou,caopirangqianqudiaoyanderen,douyaoxueyishenglvjiao。zhici,jiananqizizhengshiluomu。

jiananershiwunian(220)chun,caocaosiyuluoyang,anzhaoyizhu,tadeyitimeiyoubeiyunhuijiaxiangbozhoucaoshizufen,ershizangzaijianzhengletayilunanzhengbeifa、dangpingtianxiadeyecheng。caopimeiyoucaocaozhougongshifuzuojunwangdemengxiang,zaicaocaoqushijigeyuehou,caopiqiangpoxiandishanranghuangwei,zijichengweiweiwendi,zhengshigaichaohuandai。

caocaozijiyishengbucengchengdi,takaichuangdeweiguoyezhicunzaile45nian,danyoutayinlingdeyishifengqi、yidaiwenhua,quebitayijitadezisunnenggouzhangwodezhengzhiquanliyanxudegengjiuyuan。erzaicaoshifuzihejiananqizimendeyingxiangxiaxingchengdegeleiwenrenquanzi,zechengzhexingshiziyoudeshigejixuqianjin,zuizhongyiludidatangshi。

(参考资料:《〈三国志〉讲义》,戴燕著;《国之枭雄,曹操传》,张磊夫著)


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