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瑷珲的庚子年(一):修铁路的竞赛

作者:admin 2020-09-20 我要评论

jinnianshigengzinian,yichangcubujifangdeliyizaiwuhanxunsumanyan,xinglaiguojiajucuodedang,geshengyiliaoduijijifuyuan,jibenhuajielezheichangzainan。er120nianqiande1900yeshigengzinian,shichenggengzizhibianhuogeng...

今年是庚子年,一场猝不及防的疠疫在武汉迅速蔓延,幸赖国家举措得当,各省医疗队积极赴援,基本化解了这场灾难。而120年前的1900也是庚子年,史称“庚子之变”或“庚子国难”。如果说眼下尚未完全消除的新冠之疫主要是天灾,晚清的那次大动荡就是人祸,是在“忠君爱国”“扶清灭洋”等响亮口号下的肆意胡为,给慈禧太后恋栈揽权以理由,也给列强侵占和分切中国以借口,遭殃的则是亿万生民。 去年夏天,在瑷珲历史陈列馆观看这段痛史的半实景画,馆长陈会学的讲解极有感染力,内心受到深深撞击,泪水盈眶。八国联军入侵造成的惨案可谓多矣,攻入天津、保定、北京时均开杀戒,海兰泡与江东六十四屯惨案几乎与之同时,又因发生在沙俄统治下的黑龙江左岸,更有一种加倍的凶残,那里的国人也更加悲苦无助……

兴建中的西伯利亚大铁路(摄于1903年)

 

lishidejinzhanbenkeyibushizheiyangde。

dierciyapianzhanzhengzhihou,xianfengdizairehehenkuaibengshi,sushundengfuzhengdachenbeisaochu,liangtaihouchuiliantingzheng,yigongqinwangyixinweiyizhengwang,zhuchizongligeguoshiwuyamen,zhongyongnengchen,kaibanyangwu,yezhujianpingdingpanluan,shiyunianjianxiuyangshengxi,daijiqingwangchaoyige“xiaoyangchun”,shicheng“tongzhizhongxing”。jintianrengyoushixuejiazheiyangshuo,quezaijieshixueshangfuyuxindeyiyi,ruruimalizai《tongzhizhongxing》dexuyanzhongshuo:

budanyigewangchao,erqieyigewenmingkanlaiyijingbengkuile,danyouyu19shiji60niandaideyixiejiechurenwudefeifannuli,tamenzhongyusiliqiusheng,zaiyanxule60nian,zheijiushitongzhizhongxing。

tashuodejiechurenwu,yingbaokuocengguofan、zuozongtang、lihongzhang,yeyingbaokuogongqinwanghecixitaihou,gezhanqicai,shijijikeweideqingwangchaodeyixumingbangeduoshiji。neigeshiqidegaigezhishengyehenqiangjing,fuzhouchuanzhengju、jiangnanzhizaoju、kailuanmeikuangxianhoujianli,zhiliyugeshengluxukaishigaigejundui,jianlisanyanghaijundesiluyezhengshitichu。jinruguangxuchao,gezhongxinshitiejiajian、zhuangjixunyangjian、yuleitingdapigouru,beiyangshuishizhengshichengjun,daqingchaotingdezixinyejianjiandeyihuifu。

1865nian11yue6ri,zhongguohaiguandierrenzongshuiwusi、yingguorenhedexiangqingtingdichengleyifengaigebeiwanglu,jianyipaiqianduiwaishituan,shelizhuwaishiguan,bingjinkuaixingbantielu、lunchuan、dianbaohekuangye。yingguozhuhuashiguancanzanweituomayetichulejintongdejianyi,xiwangzhongguonengjiakuaigaige,rongrushijiededageju。ciyidaozhileyigepinjijiaodidefuouguanmotuandechuxing,youhedeweixiangdao,youlilelundun、bolin、shengbidebaodengdabangeouzhou。danduiyuxiutielu,qingtingshangxiarengshimanfuhuyi,huyuyingjianzheyouzhi,qiangliefanduizhegengduo。ruguoshuo1865nianyingguorenzaijingshijianzaodeneitiaoyilizhangdexiaotielu(xuanjibeichai)busuanshu,shinianhouyiheyangxingzaishanghaijiandewusongtieluzetouruleyunying,jinyinianduobianbeiqingtinggoumaihechaichu。

etingdebiaoxianyoujifenxiangxiang,danyaogengzaokaifangyixie:zai1837nianxiuleyitiao15yinglizhangdehuangcuntielu,cinianzaiyanzhang16yingli,houlaiyeshiyinqiyipianfanduizhisheng,jinzhanjiweihuanman。zuizaotichuxiujianxiboliyadatieludeshiyingguomaoxianjiadafu,yigedianxingdedahuyou,shuokeyizaixixiboliyabuzhuo400wanpiyema,youmalaiqianyinhuoche,beijiaotongdachenqiefujinhongchumenqu。yuelvetongshi,mulaweiyuefuyetichucongkuyedaoxihaianzhongbudeyalishandeluofusike,zhiheilongjiangxiajiangdiqudesuofeisike,xiuyitiao40yinglizhangdetielu,yongyidiaobingheyunmeideng,qiefujinrengbutongyi。jinjiezhedengchangdeshimeiguomaoxianjiakelinsi,zaishunheilongjiangerxiadelvchengzhong,jimuduxiexinjiliguchuixiujiantielu,xiancongchitaxiudaoheilongjiangpan,bingfuyouyunzuofanganhebaojia,yebeiqiefujinfoujue。jinru19shiji80niandai,eguodejunshizhanlvejiaqianglieyishidaohaicanweidepianyuan,xingzaoxiboliyadatieludehushenggengqiang,tiyizhishaoyaoxiutonghaicanweizhiboliduan,yijiaqiangzaiyuandongdefangyu。1886nian,dongxiboliyazongduyigenatiyefuyubinhaibianjiangquzongdukeerfudoushangshushahuangyalishandasanshi,yidapizhongguorenshenruwaibeijiaerweici,zouqingxiujiantielu。yalishandasanshijixingpishi,qiangdiaoxiboliyashi“eluosilingtubukefengedeyibufen”,xiujiantielu“jiangjiwomendezuguodailairongguang”。zheixiehuayingshiweizuigaozhishile,1887nianefangkaishiduihaicanweizhiboliluduanjinxingkantan,kecaizhengbuyigezhongliyoubujiqian,jiuzheiyangyituoyoushishunian。

erenzhunbeixiutieludexiaoxibuduanchuanruqingting,yinqicixitaihoudeguanzhu。tazaizhaojianhunchunfudoutongyiketangashixunwencishi,yiketangazoubaoleefangzaixingkaihudongbiankanchalujideqingxing,huirenhoubuduandatanzoubao。cishijingutielugaocheng,lihongzhangnixujiantianjindaotongzhouduan,chaoyedishitieludeshenglangyiranqiangjing,jiulianhubushangshuwengtongheyedaitoufandui,ercixitaihouyigaibianguannian,jicichuanzhiming“zaiyi”,hougancuiyuling“yiranxingban”。

1890nianruneryue,wenzhishaeyuchaoxiandinglilulutongshangtiaoyue,guangxuhuangdizhifuchunqinwangzhidianlihongzhang,shangtaoxiuzhu“donggui”shiyi。dongguijiguandongtielu,diyiqiguihuayoutianjinjingshanhaiguan、jinzhou、shenyangtongwangjilin,zaiwangyingkou、hunchundenghaikouhebianfangtuozhan。zheishiwenzhieguoyaoxiuzhutongwangchaoxiandetieluhou,qingtingjinjicaiqudeduiyingxingjucuo。zongligeguoshiwuyamenzoushangliutiaofanglve,cixipiyuzhiyou“jinglianshuilugejun”“dongsanshengxingbantielu”youyong,qitadoushikonghua,yaoqiujinkuailuoshi。jiaoweiwushidelihongzhangjianyi“meinianjinbukuanerbaiwanliangzaoerbaililu,zhujieqianjin,shuniankecheng”,cixitaihouyuchunqinwangdanxinluozaierenhoumian,juedingjiekuansanqianwanliang,jiajingangong。lianggeyuehou,shanghaide《shenbao》quanwenkandenglezhangzhidong、liumingchuandengrenguanyuxingjiantieludezouzhe,bingshuoqiyinzaiyuduixifang“yicuncaiji”,ershaedezhihoulikejiakuailexingzaoxiboliyadatieludejinzhan。qingtingdaweinaonu,duizhangzhidongdengrenbuzhibaomi、“yirenmuyouchaoxuxuanxiechuanbo”dezuofayanjiashenjie。

guandongtieluvsxiboliyadatielu,benlaishianzhongjiaojing,jiuzheiyangbeigongkaitichulaile。

那也是沙俄向黑龙江左岸和乌苏里地域加速移民和军事部署的时期,老毛子的胃口又大了许多,黑龙江南岸乃至整个中国东北,都已进入其殖民蓝图。在规划横贯欧亚的西伯利亚大铁路时,这个老牌帝国主义的腐败低效暴露无遗,尽管得到沙皇支持,进展仍非常缓慢。1891年5月30日,皇太子尼古拉亲自到海参崴主持动工仪式,可仍是一副修修停停的状态。比较起来,清廷的效率似乎要高不少:醇亲王全力支持,直隶总督李鸿章受命“督办一切修造事宜”,盛京将军裕禄“会同办理”,已上马的卢汉铁路工程停下来,“每年拨银二百万两移为关东铁路专款”。就在尼古拉出席西伯利亚铁路奠基仪式一个月后,北洋铁路局在山海关成立,聘请英国人金达为总工,至1894年已修至山海关,关外的土石方和铺轨也分段展开。孰料甲午战争爆发,关东铁路被迫停工。而沙俄由谢·尤·维特担任财政大臣,组建了西伯利亚铁路特别委员会,皇太子亲任主席,使项目一下子进入快车道。两国朝廷都意识到铁路对守土开边的重要性,都要将铁轨铺向黑龙江、乌苏里江流域,也都对工程的浩繁艰难估计不足。俄西伯利亚大铁路至1904年才勉强开通,我国的关东铁路更是命运多舛,这是后话。(待续)


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