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三星堆:未完待续的考古现场

作者:admin 2020-10-03 我要评论

cong1986nianlianggejisikengchutudaoxianzai,yiguoqu34nian。zaiguanghandesanxingduibowuguanheweiyuchengdoudesichuanshengwenwukaoguyanjiuyuandekufangnei,rengcunyoudaliangqingtongcanpian,dengdaizheyanjiuhefuyuan。womenduisan...

从1986年两个“祭祀坑”出土到现在,已过去34年。在广汉的三星堆博物馆和位于成都的四川省文物考古研究院的库房内,仍存有大量青铜残片,等待着研究和复原。我们对三星堆的了解还有多少空白,以至于有关三星堆的很多问题至今难以定性?

 

青铜大立人像

 

摄影/蔡小川

sanxingduibowuguandexiufuzhongxinshiyanshili,guohanzhongnachugerongbufanghe。hezilitangzheyijianqingtongqiwu,buda,shouzhangxinganghaofangdexia。yiyanjiunengkandechu,zheishisanxingduidedongxi——renxingdediaoxiang,lianxingfangfangzhengzheng,daergaobi,shuangyantuchu,zuibabianerkuanda,toudingyouxiecansun。xiaodiaoxiangzhangzheyifudianxingde“sanxingduishi”renlian,quejiazainiaodeshenshang。yuyiqueleyiban,zhishengxiayouce,zaoxingbeichouxiangdisuzaochengkuanzhande“3”zhuang,xiangshigesuishikeyishangjingdefatiao。

zheijianbeichengweirenshouniaoshenxiangdeqingtongwujian,1986nianchutuyusanxingduiyizhi2hao“jisikeng”,quesundebufenbijiaoduo,danzhutibaocundehenhao,xiaoqiaoerdiaokedejingmei,gentongshichutudeqingtongmianju、liren、touxiangsuidayoubutong,queshiyimaitongzhi。

zaizheigexiaodongxishenshang,nongsuozherenmenduisanxingduidewujinyiwen:weishenmehuichutuzheimeduorenmianqingtongqi?weishenmetamenzhangderucidute?tamenshiruhebeizhuzaode?neixieshuodadeqingtongqicongheerlai?zheixiexiaoerjingdeqingtongwujianyoushizuoshenmede?cunzaiyusansiqiannianqiandesanxingduirenshizenyangdeyiqunren?tamencongnaerlai?tamenshiruheshenghuode?genchuxianshiqiyousuozhonghedezhongyuanshangwangchaoyoushenmeguanlian?sanxingduiwenhuayoucunzaileduojiu?……

danyanxia,duiyukaogugongzuozhelaishuo,zheixiecongchutujiuyizhibansuizhesanxingduidezhongzhongyiwen,doumeiyouwenwubenshendewanzhengxinglaidezhongyao。

郭汉中正在为人首鸟身像的鸟尾制作陶范

 

9yue10ri,guohanzhonghetadexiufutuanduidiyicicongdangnianchutudedaliangqingtongcanpianzhong,zhaodaoleyimeirenshouniaoshenxiangdecanbujian。rongbufangheli,haitangzhelingyixiaokuaiqingtongcanjian,zhangyouliuqigongfen,loukongdiaokezhejingmeidejihewenshi。“zheishiniaoshenxiangshangqueshideniaoweibufen,zuotianwomencaizhaodao,pipeishang。nimenjintianzhenghaonengkandao,taixingyunle!”guohanzhongbaniaoshenheniaoweipinjieqilaiwozaishoushang,niaoweiqiaodehengao,dapoleyuanbendiaoxiangdejingtaigan,yixiazi,“huo”leqilai。

zhaodaoniaowei,zhishigekaishi。

xiangzheiyangderenshouniaoshenxiang,zaisanxingduichutudeqingtongqizhonghenshao。tamendoubushidulicunzaide,ershifuzhezaiyijiandaxingqingtongqishangdelingbujian。qizhongyouyigexingside,zhuzaichutudeqingtongshentanshang。genjufanfudibiduiqueren,zheimeirenshouniaoshenxiang,yuanbenyinggaishizaiyizhuqingtongshenshudezhiduan。1986niansanxingdui“jisikeng”gangchutubujiu,guohanzhongdeshifuyangxiaowuhetuanduijiuhualejinianshijian,fuyuanchu1haoshenshu,tongti3.96migao,shimuqianguoneichutudetiliangzuidadeqingtongqiwu,rujinchenliezaibowuguandezhantingnei,chengweizhenguanzhibao。erzheiyijian,beidingwei3haoshenshu。yu1haoxiangbi,3haojingqiaodeduo,zhiyou1.1mizuoyou,shiweilaijigeyueguohanzhonghetadetuanduixiufudezhongdianqiwuzhiyi。

修复师郭汉中和待修复的一个青铜尊

 

kufangli,zhengzaixiufuzhongde3haoshenshuxiandebutaiqiyan,sangenshuzhigexiangmahuabianyiyangjiaochanxiangshang,zhiganyouxiedanbo,“chanruo”diyizaiqiangjiao,zhiganshangmanshizanshinianhedehenji,yaokaogangjinzhijiadezhichengcainenglidezhu。genjuchutudecanbujianlaikan,“jisikeng”neideshenshuyingyou6zhi8jian,xuanzexianzaixiufu3hao,shiyinwei3haodecanjianxiangduiduo,fuyuanqilaibawojiaoda,yegengyouzhuyuxueshuyanjiu。

cong1986nianliangge“jisikeng”chutudaoxianzai,yiguoqu34nian。zaiguanghandesanxingduibowuguanheweiyuchengdoudesichuanshengwenwukaoguyanjiuyuandekufangnei,rengcunyoudaliangqingtongcanpian,dengdaizheyanjiuhefuyuan。tamenyuanbenshishenmeyang?tamendefuyuanhuibuhuichengweijiekaimouyigesanxingduixiaomitideyaochi?womenduisanxingduidelejiehaiyouduoshaokongbai,yizhiyuyouguansanxingduidehenduowentizhijinnanyidingxing?

dangzhongzhongyiliudewentibaizaimianqianwufajiedashi,sanxingduikaoguyinglaileyicixindetupo——cong2019nian12yuekaishi,zai1、2hao“jisikeng”dezhouwei,xianrensanxingduikaogugongzuozhezhanzhanzhangleiyuhetadetongshimenyouluxufaxian6gexiangsideqiwukeng,sidaliangxiao,tamenchaoxiangyizhi,doushidongbei-xinanzouxiang。

三星堆博物馆修复实验室内

 

limianmaileshenme?haihuiyouneixiezaoxingdutederenmianqingtongxiangma?youhuiyouqitaxinqiwuchutuma?xinkengjijiangkaishiwajue,renmenqidaizhezheicifajuekeyijisanxingduidezhuduoyihuodailaiyixiequeqiedejieshi。danshi,dangyixiewentidedaodaanshi,yidinghuidaichuxindekunhuo。kaogudemeilibianshiruci,weizhidelishichengweiqianyinkaogugongzuozhebuduantansuodixiamimideyuandongli。

zi1929nianzaicunminyandaochengjiayuanzilichutuyuqiyilai,sanxingduikaogujinglidaodi91geniantou,qijiansuiyouzhongduanyukanke,danshizhongyouxindefaxian。yudaduoshukaogubutong,congchutudaliangqingtongmianjuheqiyidiaoxiangdeneiyikeqi,sanxingduijiuyishenmidezitaixunsujinrudazhongshiye。meirenjianguozheixiedongxi,yemeirenjieshideqing,renmenwufashuofuziji,zheixiedongxibushitianwailaiwu。chutuqiwuchengweirenmenjiaxiangdemuben,xiangguanjiashuoyutuiceputiangaidixilai,jiangyuanbenjiupushuomilidekaogunantibaoguodegengjiashenmi,gengchongmanxijuxing。boquzheixiebuzhebianjidejiashuo,sanxingduichengzaideshifeichangyansulixingdekaoguwentihelishimailuo——tashixianqinkaoguzhongdezhongyaoyizhi,yeshilijiesichuandiyulishideguanjianhuanjie。

jiedusanxingdui,haishidexiancong1986nianchutudeliangge“jisikeng”shuoqi,yinweitamenzugoutebie,baohandexinxiliangzugoujuda。

三星堆博物馆外景

 

发现“祭祀坑”

sanxingduiyizhiweiyusichuanshengguanghanshi,shisichuanpendimuqianfaxiandezuidadexianqinyizhi。guanghanzaichengdoudedongbeifangxiangsiwushigonglichu,suilishudeyangshi,queshigeshengxiaxianjishi,youzheteshudexingzhengjibie。

chuzhiyizhi,youxiebianbuqingfangxiang。chendeandaizhewomenchuansuozaiyizhiqudetianjianditou:“womenxianzaijiaoxiashigudaisanxingduidenanchengqiang,zheishiweiyiyiduanxianzaikeyixingchedechengqiangyizhi。”“yuanxianchuanchengerguodemamuhehechuangshihenkuande,nikankanxianzaidoukuaimeishuile。”“1929nianjiushizaizheigeyuanqianggenchutudashibide,yuanziyijingfanxinlejilun,xianzaitamenzhengmianlinzheyaobeichaiqian,fachoudehen。”jinnian67suidechendeanshi1986nianfajue“jisikeng”shidekaoguduiduizhang,anshuzheiyipiantudi。

yizhechendeandezhiyin,pashangyigetupo,youliuqimigao,“zheijiushisuowei‘sanxingdui’deqizhongban‘dui’。”

“sanxingdui”,qishishiyizhiquzhongdesangetudui,youxuezherenweizheisangetuduicengjingshiyidaoxiangliandechengqiang,erxianzaicansundesangetuduizhishengxiabangele,gaoduyebicongqianjiangdilexie。

“sanxingdui”zheigemingzi,zuizaodechuchuyiwucongkaozheng。qingjiaqingnianjiande《hanzhouzhi·shanchuanzhi》lishuo:“sanxingbanyuedui,zhixishiwuli。”zaisanxingduituduidedongbeifang,youlingyidaocanpodetuchengqiangyizhi,xingsiwanyue,beichengzuoyueliangwanchengqiang。yushi,dangdirenjiujizheigejingguanqilege“sanxingbanyue”deyacheng。

zhanzaizheijincundebange“dui”shangxiangxinanwangqu,bianshi“jisikeng”defangxiang。

“faxian‘jisikeng’,shiourande,yeshibirande。”chendeanshuo。yinweizaicizhiqian,cong1980niankaishi,sanxingduikaogujinruzhengshidekexuekaogujieduan。dao1986nian,sanxingduikaoguyijingjinxinglelianxu6niandefajue,qiwu、muzang、chengqiang,meiniandouyoubutongdefaxian。

陈德安

 

faxian“jisikeng”zhiqiandemeiyitian,jihudouneng“wachudianshenme”——nizhihongtaohumian、huitaochanchu、taosushuangmianmaotouying、zhuhongseqiqicanpi、generlitouchutuxingzhifeichangleisidesanzuxingchuiqihuoshiqingtongpaishidengdeng。zai1986nian3zhi5yuedezheicifajuezhong,fenlesangequyu,fajuezongmianjiyou1000duopingfangmi,qizhongdisanqudewenhuacengduijizuihou,faxiandewenwuzuiduo,zuihoudedifangkeda16cengdewenhuaduijiceng,weisichuanxinshiqishidaiwanqidaoxiashangzhoudekaoguyanjiujianlileniandaixuetixi。zheixiechutuhedafanweidekantan,haoxiangdouzaiweiyigegengzhongdadefaxianzuozhepudian。

jinguanruci,“dangshisanxingduiyizhishenmedoubushi,lianxianbaodoubushi”。danzaikaoguxueshang,1981niandeneiciyizhifajuezhihou,“sanxingduiwenhua”zheigemingmingyibeizhengshitichu。yeshizaizheijinian,sanxingduiwenhuadefenqiyouleyigejibengongshi:diyiqizaixinshiqishidaiwanqi,dierqichuyuerlitouwenhuazhishangzaoqi,disanqixiangdangyushangdaizhongqihuolvewan,disiqizezaishangdaiwanqizhixizhouzaoqi。zheiyang,sanxingduiyizhihesanxingduiwenhuadeyicunjiubaituolewuxu,erzouxiangyouxu。zaigengzaode40niandai,sichuandiqukaogujiangzhongxinfangzaichengdouyidai,kaoguxuejiaweijuxiandengrenjiuzhengshitichule“bashuwenhua”degainian,jisichuankaogurentigongleyigezuobiaoxi。

2号“祭祀坑”出土的青铜头像。仔细低头看,大多数2号坑出土的都是雕刻了鼻孔的,1号坑出土的量相对少,而且几乎没有细致地雕刻出鼻孔

 

chendeandedadang、kaoguduifuduizhangchenxiandanzaitaderijizhongxiedao,tamenzai3qudelianggetanfangneidediwuceng,fenbiefaxianleliangkuaican“zhuan”,kuanduyue14limi,yikuaishineihong、waichengqinghuise,yikuaizegengjiejinhongshaotudeyanse。tarenweizheilianggetanfangdedicengshimeiyoubeiraoluande,suoyipaichulewanqiyiwuhunjinzaoqidicengdekenengxing。neime,anzhaodicengdeniandaidadantuiduan,zheishenzhiyoukenengshi3000duonianqianshurenshaodezhuan。danyangbentaishao,buzuyizhengshizheigejiaxiang。

leisidetuicemeitiandouzaifasheng。sanxingduiwenhuajiujingyiweizheshenme?zaibashuwenhuazheigezuobiaoxilizhanyoushenmeyangdeweizhi,nengdadaoshenmeyangdegaodu?jinjinshitaoqiheyuqima?chendeanhetadetongbanmenxiwangzhaodaozheixiewentidedaan。

7yue18ri,cunminchenlizhizhengzaisanxingduide“tuduizi”neierbangmanghuitiantanfang,tingtongbanshuojishimiwaiwadaoleyuqi,bianlianmangpaoqukan。“gangchulaideshihoushiyuqi,womenyebuxiaodeshixieshazi。douqiangzhekan,jiushikanxiqi。neishihourendouhaodanchunma。”zaiyuqizhouwei,haiyoudalianghaibei,“womenjiaohaipazi,chuanqijiwaerdaizhe,nengpixie。”chenlizhishuo。

chenlizhidejiashili“jisikeng”zuijindeyihu,zhixianjulibuguowuliushimi。congchushengdaoxianzai77sui,chenlizhiyizhizhuzaizheili。kaogufajuechulezhuanyedekaogugongzuozhe,bangmangdecunminshilingyigezhongyaoqunti。jingguoyixiekaoguwajuedejibenxunlian,jiashangshidicaolian,tamenhenkuaijiunengshangshou,chengweikaogugongdishangde“shuliangongren”。zai1986niandezhenggesanxingduifajuexianchang,xiangchenlizhizheiyangcanyudecunminyoushangbairen。

“erchen”(chendean、chenxiandan)yeganleguoqu,yibiantakanxianchang,yibianshouhuicunminshouzhongdeyuqi。luchuyuqidexianchangjulidibiaojiejinliangmi,zhouweihaiyoudaliangmutan、huijinheguzha。“zheishiyigezhongyaodemuzangkengma?”“erchen”diyicizuochulezhijuexingdecaice。“qinhanshiqiangrenjinruchengdoupingyuanlongmenshanyidai,qiangrenyouhuozangxisu。genjudicengdepanduan,zheihuibuhuishiyigeqiangrendehuozangkeng?”chendeanshuowa1haokengshiyougezhongcaice,yinweiyoudaliangguzhachuxian。danguzhasuiduo,quebunenglikepanduanchushibushirengu。

青铜人首鸟身像,修复师最近才找到缺失的鸟尾,整件器物应是三星堆3号神树上的一个部件

 

suihoudejitian,kaoguduiyuanhegongrenmenyizhizaiqinglizheige“muzang”。yitonggongzuode,haiyouyixiechuandakaoguxidexuesheng,“erchen”xuyaobianfuzefajuegongzuo,bianjiaoxueshengjichudetianyekaogujineng——zenmekandiceng,zenmehuitu,zenmejichutudemeiyijianwenwuzuobiaoqian,meixiayigetanfangdouyaofanfusikao:zheishigehuikeng(shenghuolajikeng)ma?shifangwuyijima?yourenleihuodongdehenjima?

chendeanqingchudijide,neiniande7yue,guanghanhenre,tianqimendehen,shichanghuidalei,zongjuedetianyaoxiayuqueyizhixiabuxialai。zheizhongwufayuceyourangrentixindiaodandetianqi,duiyumeitianzaiyewaifajuedekaoguduiyuanlaishuo,yalihenda。“yidanxiayu,tianlideshuirongyifanqilai,zheiyangjiuhuiduiwenwuzaochengpohuai。danyizhiguangdaleibuxiayu,tuzhiyouganyouying,hennankongzhi。fandaoshiyewantuzhihuiyouxiexuhuichao、huishi,shiwajueshizuihaokongzhideshihou。”jiuzheiyang,wajuexianchang24xiaoshilianzhouzhuan。

daole7yuedi,jinzhang、jinmianju、longhuzun、qingtongrenxiangluxuchutu,renmenkandaoleyigebukesiyidedixiashijie。fajuejinxingdehenshunli,kengneisuoyouqiwudouyiyichengxian,gegeleibieduifangzaibutongfangwei——daxingdeyushiqizhuyaozaikengdedongnankengbifujin,qingtongzun、qingtongtouxiangheqitaqingtongrongqidecanjianzaixinanbu,xiangyazaizhongbu,youqishiyipidaxiangdemenchizaikengneicongbeixiangnancheng“yi”zixingpailie,jinzhangzaikengzhengzhongpianxideweizhi。suoyouzheixieqiwuhepailiefangshidoushimiti。

yaoshenruyanjiuzheixiekeng,xianyaogaoqingchulianggejibenwenti:yishikengdegongyong,ershikengdeniandai,yijisanxingduiwenhuadefenqihekengzaizheigexuliezhongdeweizhi。

戴金面罩青铜人头像

 

青铜人面具

 

2号坑:青铜盛世

yinianzhihou,1987nian10yue,1haokengdekaogujianbaokandengzai《wenwu》qikanshang。jianbaozhong,diyicijiangzheigekengchengwei“jisikeng”,erbushigangchutushicaicedemuzangkeng。zanshidechuzheiyangdejielun,yishiyinwei“kengneiguzhadaduofanbai,yibufenchenglanheise,guzhalizayouzhumuhuijin,kengneikanbujianyanxunhenji。yinci,zheixieguzhazairukengqianjiuyifenshaozasui。genjuguzhacanpianguancha,zheixieguzhadaduoshuyujiaodadongwudeguge,kenengshijisiyongde”。ershiyinwei,1haokengganggangfajuejieshushi,2haokengjiubeifaxianle,lianxuchutudelianggekeng,shitamenxianghuzhijianchengweicanzhao,tigonggengduodehubuxinxi,yerangsanxingduizaiduanduandeyigexiatianzhong,chengweiquanguokaogujienaizhidazhongdeguanzhujiaodian。

chenlizhijide,2haokengluchulaidediyijiandongxi,jiushijianqingtongtouxiang,suiranzhiyouyijiao,queshiyangmianchaoshang。qingtongde,yinsende,lengjunde,haowuyidianbiaoqingde3000duonianqianderenxiang,zheiyimu,bazaichangdebushaorendouhehuaile。danchenlizhitingdanding,“yinweizai1haokengjianguoleisidedongxi”。

congzheigetouxiangkaishi,yigegengpangdadeqingtongshijiebeidakaile。

1、2haokengzhijianjuli30mi,1haokengbi2haokenglvedayixie,yueyou15pingfangmi。danyu1haokenggong420jiandeyiwuchutushuliangxiangbi,2haokengdeshuliangyaoduodeduo,yejingmeideduo,1300jiandechutuyiwuzhong,you735jianshiqingtongqi,qiyuyoujinqi61jian,yuqi486jian。

青铜罍

 

青铜人头像(背)

 

 

这两个坑是同时埋下去的吗,是否有先后之分?两坑的年代又相当于中国考古学年表和历史年表中的什么年代?对于这两个问题,北京大学考古文博学院学术委员会主任、多年进行三星堆和四川考古研究的孙华教授认为,这两个问题看似简单,但难下定论。

yishiyouyulianggeqiwukengchutudeqiwuzhongleiheshuliangchayijiaoda,2haokengjihumeiyoutaoqichutu,taoqishikaoguxuezhongzhongyaodeduandaiwuzheng,yinweiziguyilai,taoqishuliangjuda,qixinggengxindiedaibijiaokuai,meigeshidai、diyudouyouzhexianmingdefenggetezheng。xiangbizhixia,qingtongqizeshuyulishizhonggengdiebianhuajiaomandeqiwu,wangwangyizhongqixingkeyichuxianzaiqianhouxiangchajibainiandebutonglishijieduan,yincibutaishihenalaizuoweiduandaicanzhaowu。ershixuezhezhuyaoyikaojiaochaduandaifa,genjuliangkengzhongqiwudeyishufenggelaituiduanniandai。tongchanghuigenjuzhongyuandiquhuojianghandiqudezhuduoqiwujinxingleibi,dansanxingduidichuxinan,xiangduipianyuan,butongdiquzheixiemaosixiangtongdeqiwuhuowenshifenggeshifoushuyutongyishiqi,tamenzaichuanboguochengzhongyoumeiyoushijiancha,zheixieyinsukenengdouhuidaozhipanduandepiancha。

jibianruci,dangniande《sanxingduijisikeng》zhengshikaogubaogaozhongzhichu,1haokengdeyanmaishijianyinggaizaiyinxuyiqizhimoheyinxuerqizhijian,2haokengdeyanmaishijianzeshizai“yinxuerqizhisan、siqizhijian”。danxianzaiyeyouxuezherenweiliangzhezhijiandejiangegengduan,danzongdelaishuo,tamenyuzhongyuandeshangwangchaohouqijihushitongshide,dayuezai3200nianqian。

2haokeng,yizhiwadaodiwucengwenhuacengzuoyou,luchudaliangjudadexiangya。rujinrengranshoushouxiaoxiaodezhangyouyudajiefuzeqingjiexiangyashangdechentu,neishihoutacai60duojin,shisuoyoubanggongdecunminzhongzuiqingde,zhiyoutanengguangjiaobanzhanzaixiangyashang,buhuiduixiangyazaochengshanghai。xiangyayoudayoucudigaizaibiaoceng,kongxizhong,qingtongqideguangzerengnanyiyangai。

“neimedayigedongxi,aojinqude,pabushihuangdidezuoyie!”congkenglidiyiyankandaozheigejudadeqingtongqishi,chenlizhijingdaile。cong1980nianjiukaishigenzhekaoguduizaisanxingduifajue,yesuanshiduiguwujianduoshiguangle,dantacongmeijianguozheimedadeyigeqingtongqi。bazheigeshuodadedongxicongtulibanchulai,fanguolai,zuolejiandandeqinglihou,zongmudamianjuchengxianzaidajiamianqian,shibutongyuzhongyuanqingtongqiwudeninglizhimei。

zongmumianjuchulaibujiu,henkuaijiukandaoledaliren。“dalirenchutudeshihou,xiezhelanyaoduanchengleliangjie。”jiexialaijiushikenenglaizizhongyuanshangwangchaodetongzun、tonglei。suoyouzheixiehuamian,doubeiaotianzhaopailexialai。aotianzhaojinnian92sui,guanghanren,shangshiji50niandaijinruguanghanshiwenhuaguangongzuo,congci,meiyiciguanghanshidekaogufajue,tajihudouzaichang。tacongmeiyourenzhentongjiguo,zhinengjigedagaideshuzi——dadaxiaoxiaocanyuguojishizuohanmu、songmudefajue,qingliguodewenwuyouyiliangqianjian。

敖天照

 

duisanxingduiheguanghankaogudetuiguanghepuji,aotianzhaoshiguanghanbendizuizhongyaodeyigeren。jiandaoaotianzhaoshi,tadelaobanqushigangguo“qiqi”jitian。posudeliangjushilaofangzili,airendeyixiangguazaichuanglinggaochu。1973nian,aotianzhaozaihubeizhangjiangliuyukaogubanxitongdixuexilekaogu,baokuokaoguhuitu、kaoguceliang。dangshizaiguanghanbendi,jihumeiyourenyouzhuanyedekaogubeijing,aotianzhaosuiranbanluchujia,danyijingduikaoguyoulejichudekexuexingrenzhi。

70niandaihouqi,guanghandegedaxiangzhendouzaidabanzhuanwachang,dangshisanxingduisuozaidezhongxinggongsheyezaidangdiqutushaozhuan,wachulaidefeitulijiazazhebushaosuitaopian。“woyikan,taopianniandaiyinggaishixinshiqishidaiwanqide,genwozaihubeihonghuataoyizhikandaodeneixietaopianyiyang,huohoubugao,shouganbijiaoruan,qixingyebijiaoyuanshi,shuomingshijianhenzao。”dangshisanxingduimeiyouzhuanmendewenwujigou,tagenbierenshuo“kaogu”,anzhaosichuanhuadefayin,“kaogu”jiushi“qiaogu”,lingrenfeijie。

zaiaotianzhaodezhaopianli,daliren、zongmudamianjuzheijijianchaodaxingdeqingtongqi,douxuyaowuliugerenyiqibanchukenglai。zhidaoxianzai,meiyigezaibowuguanlikandaozheixiedongxiderenrengranhuifawen:zheixieqingtongqishicongnalilaide?zuoshenmede?

daduoshushuofarenwei,sanxingduiqingtongqiyuzhongyuanqingtongqijuleisi,doushijisiyongpin。tongshiqizhongyuanshangwangchaodeqingtongqi,gengxiangshirenyushenzhijiandeyibanzhongjiewu,tamenshiyizhonggoutongdemeijie。danzaisanxingduidezongjiaoxitongzhong,zheizhongjiezhibuzaishijihexingdeqiwu,ershishenxianghuozuxianbenshen。“congxianzaidekaogulaikan,sanxingduimeiyoufaxianwenzi,danzheixieshenxiangkenengchengweiwomenjiedusanxingduizuizhijiedequdao,tajichudexinxilianghexinxijiazhijiyuwenzibutong,yeyuzhongyuanqingtongqiwubutong,qitawenhuayaocaitongzhijiejishenmeyang,sanxingduiqueyoumingquedexingxiang,jiwomentigongletongzhijiecengdehenduoxinxi。”sunhuajieshishuo。

duiyu“jisikeng”depanduan,canjiaguo1980nianzhi2000niansanxingduiyizhikaogufajueyanjiuhezuzhigongzuodezhaodianzengshijianjuehanweizhe。zheiweisichuanshengwenwukaoguyanjiusuoqianfusuozhangrenwei,“jisikengdexingzhijuedinglesanxingduidexingzhi”,yiner,zhenggesanxingduidoukenengshiyigeyijisiweizhuyaomudedegucheng,chengweigushuguorenzongjiaoxinyangdezhongxin。

zhongguoshehuikexueyuankaoguyanjiusuoyanjiuyuanshijingsongzerenwei,1、2haokengchutudeyiwucunzaizhemingxianqubie:1haokengdeyiwuyiqingtongrentouxiang、longzhuxingqihejinzhangweizhu,tamenkenengshibuzushoulingdexingxianghewangquandexiangzhengwu,yinci1haokengmaizangdeshizongmiaoneideqiwu;2haokengyiqingtongtaiyangxingqi、shenshu、shenniao、xiongji、yanjingxingqihebiaoxianjisichangjingdeqiwuweizhu,qizhutishitaiyangchongbai,tamenchuzishenmiao;zaisanxingduidezaoqiguojiazhong,wangquanyushenquanbingcun。

1、2haokengqiwudemitihezhengyihaiyuanbuzhizheixie。kansichutudeqiwufeichangfengfurenao,danqishiwanzhengdequzhikeshu,henduodoushicansunde、suipiande,haiyaozuodaliangdefuyuanheyanjiugongzuo。yezhengyinweiruci,guohanzhongdetuanduizhijinrengzaifuyuan1、2haojisikengneideqingtongcanjian。

现任三星堆考古工作站站长雷雨

 

三星堆与古蜀国

20shiji80niandai,buzhishisanxingdui,quanguogegequyudouyinglaileshiqianhexianqinkaogudehuangjinqi,dongbeihongshan、zhejiangliangzhu、liaoningjieshigong、sichuansanxingduidouyouzhongdadekaogufaxian,sanwuqiannianqianfengfuduoyangdemianmaozhujianfuxianchulai。

weishenme80niandaichengweiquanguoshiqianhexianqinkaogudeyigehuangjinniandai?zhaodianzengjieshidao:“zhuyaoyousangeyuanyin:yishigaigekaifangzhihou,xueshujiezhongxinyongyouziyoudezhixuefengqi;ershiquanguogedidoujinrudaguimodejichujianshejieduan,youjianshejiuyaokaituohuangdi、wadiji,zheiyangyilai,henduofajueqishishijiyujianshedeqiangjiuxingfajue;disan,shisubingqitichule‘quxileixingshuo’,zheiyidianyouweizhongyao,yinweitaranggedidekaoguchanshenglezhudongxing。”

1981nian,kaoguxuedajiasubingqifabiao《guanyukaoguxuewenhuadequxileixingwenti》yiwen,zaicizhiqian,tayijingtichuguo“wenhuaquxileixing”degainian,bingtichuleliudawenhuaquxi:yizhangchengdidaiweizhongxindebeifangdiqu;yijinshanyusanshengjielindiquweizhongxindezhongyuandiqu;yidongtinghujiqilinjingdiquweizhongxindezhangjiangzhongyoudiqu;yishandongjiqilinjingweizhongxindehuanghexiayoudiqu;yijiangzhe(taihuliuyu)jiqilinjingdiquweizhongxindezhangjiangxiayoudiqu;yipoyanghu、zhujiangsanjiaozhouyixianweizhuzhoudenanfangdiqu——yiciquelilezhongguoshiqianwenhuafazhanyanjindazhideshikongkuangjia。

zishangshijiersanshiniandaiyinxukaogukaishi,yinxubianchengweiqitadiyukaogudeyigecanzhaoxi。ruguoshuoersanshiniandaiyiyinxukaoguweidaibiaodexianqinkaogushiminzuzhuyishideweizhongguoxungen,neimedaole80niandai,yi“quxileixingshuo”weibeijingdegedikaogu,gengshiyizhongdiyuxingxungen,laizuozhengyigeduoyuanyitidezhonghuaminzu。jiuhaobiwomencengjingrenweizhongguoyinggaishiyitiaodahefenchuruoganzhiliu,dandaole80niandai,huoxuyinggaijiangjiqiannianqianfengfudewenhuamianmaokanchengruogantiaoxiaohebingliuerxing,zuizhonghuijuchengyitiaodadeheliu。

rujinzaicongzheigebeijingxialaikansanxingduidekaogu,keyigengjiamingquesanxingduidejiazhi。anzhaozhangguangzhixianshengdeshuofa,dianbuzai“xiashangzhousandai”zhengzhiditushangdeshuqianzuochengshi,jingzhongzhongwuxingdeniudailianweiyiti,gouchengxingzhengkongzhihecaifufenpeidefenjixitong;erchengyidefenjitixidatishangyushizuhezongzudefenjifencengxiangwenhe。gudaizhongguodemeige“guo”,doushiyigeyouruogandengjibutongdechengyigouchengdewangzhuangzuzhi。sandaichuqizheileiguohenduo,meigeguokenengyoubaokuoleshuliangjiaoshaodechengyi。jingguozhanzhengyugongfatunbing,guodeshuliangjianshao,ershangcundemeigeguoneidechengyiquezaizengjia。

gejichengyizhijiandehudongxingweiyouzhengzhijiemeng、maoyiwanglai、gongfajiaozhan、hunpeijieqin,zheixieyinsuyezaibuduancushizhe“guo”dejianshao。“xiashangzhou”sangeshidai,sihudouyouyigeguojiazhanjuzheyoushidiwei,danzheigeguozhishitamenneigeshidaizuixianhedeguojia,erjuebushidangshiweiyideguojia。sanxingduisuoshudegushuguo,jiushizheiyangyigeyuzhongyuanwangchaobingcunqiedulideguguo,erqieshiyigeweicengjianduande、zichengxitongdewenmingtixi。

“zhongguokaoguxuedekaiduanshiyinxu,tigongdelishixinxiliangzuida,keyirangkaoguxuejiazhanzaibijiaogaodeweizhilaishenshi。ruguomeiyouwadaoyinxu,womenduishangderenshihuiyuanyuanluohou。”sunhuashuo,ruguomeiyouyinshangzuoduibiao,womenyehennanlijiesanxingduidedongxi。

keyikendingdeshi,sanxingduiwenhuashiyigeqingtongwenmingfadadewenhua,youqishizailiangkengchuxiandeshijian——jujin3000duonianqian。youqudeshi,zaizhenggesanxingduiyizhidekaogufajuezhong,chule“jisikeng”,qitadifangchutudeqingtongqifeichangshao,erqietijihenxiao,doushixieleisiyuerlitouwenhuazhongdeqingtongshipaiheqingtongling,shixiexiaowujian。womenduisanxingduiderenzhi,jihudouzaizheilianggekengli。danshi,zhengshiyinweiliangkengchutudedongxitaiguoyinrenzhumu,shizhongyuandiqucongweijianguodezaoxinghejudatiliang,tamenyouhuoxuhuizhebiwomendeshixian,zaochengyixiewudu,jiangsanxingduihegushuguodewenmingchengduxiangxiangdeguogao。ruguobatalijiechengzhongguozhangjiang、huangheliuyujiaohu,meiyouguoqiangfushexingdecishengwenming,huoxugengweituodang。

新坑的期待

1、2haokengchutuzhihou,neixieqiyideqingtongqijiangsanxingduituixianglekaogujiedefengkoulangjian,yerangtayigezhongjiashuodexingshi,chuxianzaidazhongshiye。zicizhihou,kaoguduiyizhizaijinxingchengzhidekancehefajue,shituhaiyuanchugengzhongyaodeshuyuzheizuoguchengdeyangmao,erbushidanchundijuxianzaiduiqiwudeyanjiushang。

henzhangshijianyilai,1、2hao“jisikeng”beihuitianzhihou,zuochenglelvyoujingdian。dashangzhandaohejiyoukexiuxidexiaopengzi,lianggekengjiuzheimebeiyoukecanguanzhe,xiangxiangtamencengjingsaimanbaowudeyangzi。2019nian12yue,yiciourandejihui,zhandaoqiangjiaoxia,luchuleyigejiao,xunsutancezhihou,xianrensanxingduikaoguzhanzhanzhangleiyuhetadetuanduijuedezheilikenengyoudongxi。

luchujiaodeneigekengbianshi3haokeng。qichu,suiranhenqidai,chendeanhaibutaiyuanyixiangxinxinkengdechuxian,dantahaishidiyishijiangandaolexianchang。weiyidezhusimajibeigaizailezhandaoxiamian,hennankanqingchu,zhinengyongshoumo。“shigezun,dakouzun。”pingjieduoniandekaogujingyan,yijiguoshouguosuoyou1、2haokengqiwudeshougan,sanxingduideqingtongqi,renheyizhongqixing、zhigan,tadouhenshuxi。

zaicizhiqian,jihumeiyourenzaixiangxinzheilihaihuiyouxindefaxian。zuoweijingdiandezhengge“jisikeng”zhengchuzaiweixiudejieduan,lvyougongsitouruqianwan,yaohaohaozhengxiuyifan,yankanjiuyaowangongle。suoyoudedajianxiangmubeixunsuchaichule。leiyuhetadetongshimenxunsujinrukancejieduan,6gexinkengdekaikouluxubeifaxian,jihushijiazai1、2haokengzhijiande30mijulinei,sidaliangxiao,dadeyu1、2haokengleisi,xiaodezechengzhengfangxing。

weishenme8gekengjinjinaizhe,quegele30duoniancaifaxianqiyu6ge?leiyujieshidao,qichuqueshimeirenxiangxinhaihuiyou“jisikeng”,youxiexuezhehuigengqidaizhaodaowanglinghuomuzangkeng;zaijiashanglvyousheshidexiujian,bazhei6gekengwanquanzhezhule。jiuzheiyang,tamenyouzaidixiachenshuilejishinian。danshi3haokengdekaikoubijiaowan。2haokengdekaikouzaidiwuceng,diwucengdeshidaixiangdangyushangzhoushiqi;3haokengzaidisancengxia,disancengdeshidaishisongdai,danshi,“youyuwomenkandaoleyu2haokengleisidedakouzun,suoyi3haokenghe2haokengdeguanxikenengjiweijinmi”。

muqian,6gexinkengdewajuegongzuoyijingjinruzuihoudechoubeijieduan。genjutance,xiamiandeqiwukenengyu1、2haokengxiangsi——tongqi、jinqi、guzha、xiangya,huibuhuizaixinkenglizhaodaojiukengzhongcanquedelingjian?huibuhuichuxianxindeqiwu?yizhiyilai,youguan“jisikeng”niandaidezhengyishifoukeyiyouxindezhengjulaijichuyigegengmingquedejielun?zheijigekengzhijianyouyouniandaishangdekuayuema?

“tongguofajuezheijizuojisikeng,keyiquanmianlejiedangshirenmenzenyanganpaiqiwukeng,yijirensizhihouyouxuyaozuonaxieyishixingdexingwei。”kaoguduiduixinkengdefajuechongmanqidai。zaijingguoduonianchengshikaogudeshijianzhihou,leiyuyexiwangtongguoxinqiwudefajueheyanjiu,keyifanzuoyongyuchengzhideyanjiu。renyuwu、renyucheng、wuyuchengzhijiangouchengzenyangdeguanlian?dang8gekengdemianmaoquanbuzhanxianzaiwomenmianqianshi,duiyugushuguoderenzhishifouyouhuifashengxindegaibian?meiyidairentongguokaogudedaoderenzhidouzaibuduanbianhua,jiuxiangkaoguboqudicengyiyang,yicengyicengdi,lilishiyibubukaojin。


1.benzhanzunxunxingyeguifan,renhezhuanzaidegaojiandouhuimingquebiaozhuzuozhehelaiyuan;2.benzhandeyuanchuangwenzhang,qingzhuanzaishiwubizhumingwenzhangzuozhehelaiyuan,buzunzhongyuanchuangdexingweiwomenjiangzhuijiuzeren;3.zuozhetougaokenenghuijingwomenbianjixiugaihuobuchong。

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