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叶嘉莹:吟咏人生

作者:admin 2020-09-20 我要评论

jingtouqian,yejiayinggaosurenmen,tayaojianggushiciyinsongchuanxiaqu,jishixianzaibubeijieshouyemeiguanxi。jiuxiangyuangushenhuazhongkeyiyuangezhongyangtonghuadelanjing,zheidianhaishangdeyiyin,yexujianglaihuibeirenmentingdaobing...

镜头前,叶嘉莹告诉人们,她要将古诗词吟诵传下去,即使现在不被接受也没关系。就像远古神话中可以远隔重洋通话的蓝鲸,这点海上的遗音,也许将来会被人们听到并感动。

 

叶嘉莹

 

 

图片提供/《掬水月在手》摄制组

诗词中展开的生命

zi2015nianqi,weiyunankaidaxuedejialingxuesheluochenghou,yejiayingzhengshijieshu46niandewengehuashenghuo,mianqukuahaibenbozhiku。yijing96suigaolingdeta,jinnianlaiyiranzizibujuanyugudianshicidejiaoyuyuchuancheng,danyijueshaochuxianzaigongzhongmianqian。suoyizaikandaochenchuanxingweiyejiayingpaishedejilupian《jushuiyuezaishou》shi,wohaishimanhaoqi,tajiujingruheshuofuyexianshengcanyuzheiyipaishejihua。

“paisheyikaishi,yexianshengjiuwenwodedongxinqinianshishenme。suoweichuxin,jiushihuisudaoshideyuantou,huisudaogudianshici,tandaogudianshici,yexianshengshiyigeraobuguoqudezhongxin。”chenchuanxingshuo。zhiqian,chenchuanxingpaishelexiliejilupian“tamenzaidaoyuxiezuo”zhongdeliangweixiandaishirenzhoumengdie、zhengchouyu。“xianqianpaizhengchouyu,woshitanshiyulishi,yejiushishiyuxiandaishidezheizhonglishimailuodeguanxi;daolezhougong(zhoumengdie),jibenshangtanshiyuxinyang,womenzhidao,zhougongbenshenshiguiyidejushi,tadeshilimianyoufeichangduodefojiaosixiang;daoyexiansheng,jinrudaoyigeshiyucunzaidehuati,yexianshengdeyisheng,jihuwanquantourudaogudianshicideyanjiu,tabenshenxiegudianshici,tadegudianshicidejiaoxuetuiguang,dengyuweixizhegudianshicidemingmaihexinhuo,congtashenshangwomenkeyikandao,tagerendecunzai,shizaishicilimiankaizhande。”

daxuefugaidelongmenshiku,secaibanlandetangdaitongjing,zhanghuaitaizimuzhongdetangrenbihua,beilinshikezhongdetangzhanganditu……yingpiankaitou,chenchuanxingyonglejifenzhongdeyingxiangziliao,shituquchengxiangushicidanshengxianchangdeshikongzhuangtai。zheixiezhenshidelishicunliu,yiranzaituluzheneigeshidaideqixi:“luoyangshikuhaishidangniandeshiku,suiranqianmianhedangnianshaoweibutaiyiyang,danshifengchuiguopusa,huozhedongtiandexuepiaoxialai,haishidangniantangchaodeganjue。”

冬季时的洛阳一角,山河依旧,让人怀想唐诗写作的时空与风物

 

1924nianchushengzaibeijingyigeshuxiangmendideyejiaying,ziyouyeshenghuozaigushicidekongqizhong。zaibeijingxichengchayuanhutongyihumenkoushuxie“jinshidi”dezhaiyuanzhong,youniandeyejiayingzaijiazhongfubeidezhidianxiadushu,yizhidaowunianjidenianlingcaiwaichushangxue。zhidaowannian,tarengranjidefuqinyubofudezhuangshengyinsong,haiyoumuqinyubomudedishengyine。zaikoushuhuiyilu《hongquliumeng》zhong,tahuiyi:“yinweiwocongxiaojiuyixiguanyubeishiheyinsong,suoyishigedeshenglvkeyishuoduiwobingweizaochengrenhekunnan,wobujinzaichushizishijiuyixiguanhanzisishengdedufa,erqiezaisuibofuyinsongshigeshi,bianshileyixierushengzidetebiedufa。”

youyuguanyuyinsong,zai11suishi,tabianyibofusuochutimu,xiexiadiyishouqiyanjueju《yongyue》。yeyinweijingchangzaijiazhongdashengyinsong,yinqiledangshizuzhutajiadeyiweikeren,beijingfurendaxuejiaoshouxushiyingdezhuyi。duonianzhihou,dangyejiayingsuizaiguomindanghaijungongzhidezhangfuduhaitaiwan,zhiyewuzheshi,yizaitaidajiaoshudexushiyingxiansheng,jieshaotadaozhanghuanvzhongjiaoshu。

zhenzhengjiangyejiayingyinlingshanggudianshicizhilude,shitazaibeijingfurendaxuedelaoshigusui。shicidajiagusui,budanxiangneigeniandaidexuduodajiayiyang,xueguanzhongxi,erqiejiangkejingcaifencheng。jingtouqian,90duosuideyejiayinghuiyiqilaoshidangnianjiangkedejingxiangyiranlilizaimu:“daerneiyinianshanggusuideke《shixuan》,tazhiyousiwushisui,keshikanshangquhenlao。dongtiandeshihou,talimianchuanmianpao,waimianhaichuanyigepipao,ranhouhaidaiyigenimao,haiweizhehenhoudeweijin,daoleketangjiuzhaimaozi、tuoweijin,ranhoucaijiangke。tashangkeconglaimeiyoushenmegaozi,yemeiyoushenmejiangyi,conglaimeiyouzheixiegedongxi,tashangkejiukaishijiang,yibianjiangyibianxie,suoyitadoushicongketangzheibianzoudaoneibian。guxianshengshangke,xiesigezihuozhejigezi,yushiwanquanwuguan,ranhoujiucongcifahui,shangtianrudi,suidichufa,jianwuqixing。”

1948nian,dangyejiayinglikaibeijingdaoshanghaijiehunshi,suishensuodaixinglizhongjiuyoulaoshidejibenketangbiji。gusuiduizheiweidizipoweishangxi,zai1948nian12yue4riderijizhong,haiweitachudaotaiwandexinkukaitan:“deyejiayingjunzitaiwanzuoyinglaixin,baogaojinkuang,ziyankanhaizi、shaofan、daza,shubuguan,bujinweizhizaowujicaizhitan。”bujiu,liangrenduanlelianxi,deng1974nianyejiayinghuidaodaluhou,caidezhilaoshiyiyu1960nianqushi。

ruguoshuogudianshiciduiyuqingnianshidaideyejiayinglaishuo,gengduoshiyizhongmeihaodejinrunhexuntao,neimeduitahoulaibaojingyouhuanderenshengzegengjiachengweiyizhonganweihejietuozhidao。

daotaiwanbujiu,zaidangshidebaisekongbuzhong,yejiayingdezhangfuhetazijibianxianhoubeiguanrujianyu,zhangfugengbeijiyasannianzhijiu。yibianfuyunianyoudehaizi,yibianzaijisuoxuexiaojiaoke,zhangfuchuyuhou,gengyaorenshoutaduobianyinudexingqing,neishideyejiayingchangjiangzijixiangxiangchengwangguoweicizhongdeyanghua“kaishibuyurenkan,ruheyishamengmengzhui”,ganjuezijigenbenbucengkaiguo,bianyilingluodiaocan。

xingyundeshi,tajiangshoudegudianshicikechengshoudaodajiadereliehuanying。houlaizaixushiying、daijunrendengxianshengdejujianxia,tazaitaiwandaxuerenjiaozhangda15nianzhijiu。shangshijiwuliushiniandai,zhengshitaiwanxiandaiwenxueboxingdeshiqi,neiyishiqiqilaidenianqingzuojia,duoshouguoyejiayingdeyingxiang。jilupianzhong,xiaoshuojiabaixianyonghuiyiqineishitaqiaoleqitake,quezuzutingleyinianyexianshengdeshixuanke。

1969nian,yejiayingdedaoqubeimeijiaoshudejihui,jinglilezaimixiegenzhoulidaxue、hafodaxuededuanqijiaoxue,zhongyudedaojianadabuliediangelunbiyadaxuedezhongshenpinshu。zhengdangtajuedexianshianwenzhishi,quezai1976nianshoudaodanverhenvxuzaoyuchehuo,shuangshuanglishideehao。

“youdeshihouniyaojiangshici,zhenshiniyaoshenjingyouhuan,nicaihuiduizheigeciyouhenshendelijie。wangguoweide《renjiancihua》liyouyijuhua,‘tianyibaixiongchengjiuyiciren’。”jilupianpaisheshi,dajiaxiaoxinyiyibuganchupengzheiduanjingli,danjingtouqiandelaorenyiranpingjing。

chenchuanxinggaosuwo,yexianshengweirenyanjin,“meicipaisheqishidoutixindiaodan,yuanyinshiyexianshengkenenghuishixianyigeyuehuolianggelibai,zaiwomenchufaqianjiuhuijiwomenyixiewenti,laijuedingfanggangneirong,youdianxiangjidaxueshengshangkeyiyangyaobeike”。zhangdaliangnianduodepaishezhong,shezhizuzhenglichudecaifangneirongda95wanzi。zaizheiduannandedexiangchuzhong,chenchuanxingfaxian,“yexianshengqishibiaoxianzuinandedeyidianjiushibuyuantian,buyouren,zhenzhengtixianlerujiadeyizhongfengfan”。

大雪覆盖下的洛阳龙门石窟观音像,这一佛教圣地曾不断出现在唐人的诗歌中

 

从“为己”到“为人”

yingpianzhong,chenchuanxingcaifangletaiwanxiandaishirenyaxian。yaxianteyitandaoyejiayingzaigoutongtaiwanxin、jiushirenfangmiandegongxian:“xianzaixiangxiang,yejiayingtaxiedezheigeguanyujiushi、chuantongshi,chuantongdeciquzheifangmiandewenzhang,duiwomenyingxianghenda。xinshirenhejiushirenshibutailaiwangde。guoduanwujieshizhengfuguidingde、dingdingdeyigeshirenjie,danshiliangpaishirenwomenbuzaiyiqichizongzi。nichinidezongzi,wochiwodezongzi。nijiniannidequyuan,wojinianwodequyuan。houlaiwobazheigeqingkuangjiushuojiyudagangxianshengting。yudagangshuo,duia,zheishiyijianshiqing,xinshi、jiushishiyijianshiqing,weishenmenimenhaoxiangjielechou。tashuoniduyiduyejiayingdewenzhang。nijianyinidepengyoumenduoduduyejiayingdewenzhang。dangshiwozaibian《youshiwenyi》,jiujitakailegezhuanlan。……(yexianshengfabiaozaishangmiande)zheisanpiandongxi,shidexinshirenhejiushirenmanmandikaishizaiduanwujieyizhangzhuozishangchizongzile。”

zai《hongquliumeng》yishuzhong,yejiayingyeteyitandaolezijizhixuefenggedezhuanbian。gangdaotaiwanshi,zaijiaoxuezhiyu,yejiayingji《youshi》《wenxuezazhi》dengzazhixieguoyixieshicipingshangdewenzhang。zheiliangbenzazhidoushinianqingrenchuangbandekanwu,《youshi》shitaiwanyigezhuanguanqingnianwenhuadetuantiyoushichuangbandekanwu,《wenxuezazhi》zeshitaidawaiwenxiyiboshishengchuangbandezhumingkanwu,qizhongyongxianchurubaixianyong、chenruoxi、ouyangzidengyipinianqingzuojia。

youyudangshikutongzhizhongdexinjing,yejiayingzaoqizhuru《shuojinganci〈huanxisha〉yishou》《jishouyonghuadeshiheyixieyouguanshigedehua》《congliyishan〈change〉shitanqi》jipianwenzhang,doudaiyounonghoudegerenganqingsecai。neiwanquanshiyizhongconggerenganshouchufadexuewen。zheiyijieduan,yejiayingduiwangguowei、lishangyindexihuan,gengduochenjinzaiyizhongzhuguandelianxiangyuganshouzhizhong。tazaihuiyiluzhongtandaozijichengwangguowei“jinganxiansheng”,yishizunjing;chengwangwei“mojiejushi”,yishishuyuan;zhihulishangyindezi“yishan”,yishiqinjin。yingpianzhong,yejiayingyinsonglelishangyindeliangshoushi《change》he《jinse》,cangsangdeyindiaoyirandaizhejiyizhongdeneifenshenqing。

yigutaidazhongwenxijiaoshoukeqingming,shengqianzaiyingpianzhongjiangyejiayingzaiyanjiuzhongduishirenderentonggaikuoweisangejieduan:“zailishangyinjieduanshiwangshenlizou,zaihaoxiangtaoyuanmingdejieduanshibazijiderengejianliqilai,daodufudejieduanshikaishibianchengguangfandeboai,ranhoushiguangdadeguanhuai。”

congshangshiji60niandaikaishi,yejiayingxiewenzhangdeluzicong“weiji”manmanzhuanxiang“weiren”,biaozhixingdezhuanbianjiushitahaofeihendaxinlixiezuode《dufu〈qiuxingbashou〉jishuo》。tahuiyidao:“60niandaideshihou,taiwanwentanshang‘xiandaishi’fengxingyishi。xuduorenduidangshizheizhongyijufadiandaojiyixianghuiseweimeidezuopintichupiping,youciyinfalechuantongpaiyuxiandaipaideyichangzhenglun,daqilebizhang。neishiwozhengzaitaiwandaxuejiaodufushi,duiyuzheichangzhenglunyeyouyixiezijidekanfa。”

yejiayingteyijuchudufu《qiuxingbashou》zhong“xiangdaozhuoyuyingwuli,biwuqilaofenghuangzhi”dejuzi,shuomingzaozaidufudeshidai,bianyouzheizhongjufadiandaodexiefa。zheizhongdiandaodailaidehuise,zhengshiliudaiduzheganfadeshigedeyuwei,zaoqibaihuashidequedianzhengzaiyuguoyubaihua,meiyoushiwei。yejiayingweitaiwanxiandaishideshengyuan,poxiang20nianhoudaludexiemiandengrenweimenglongshisuozuodebianhu,raner,zheizhongshengyuanlaiziyiweigudianshicideyanjiuzhe,quepoyouyiwei。huoxuzhengshizaizheigeyiyishang,womenkeyilijieyaxiansuoshuoyexianshengduixin、jiushirendegoutong。1969niandaohaiwaijiaoshuzhihou,yejiayingfaxiantaiwandangshiliuxingyizhongfengqi,renweiyongxifangwenxuelilunyanjiuzhongguowenxueweihao,kezaitamendeyanjiuzhong,changyoujianggudianshiciniuqudexianxiang。zheirangtachanshengleyizhongwenhuachuanchengdezerendexingjue:“wojuedewomenjirancongwomendezhangbei、womendelaoshineilijieshoulezheigewenhuachuantong,daolewomenzheiyidairuguomeiyouchuanxiaqu,shiyijianlingrenkuijiudeshi。”

1979nian,dangyejiayingshoucihuiguokaibanshigejiangzuo,zheizhongwenhuachuanchengdexingjue,rangtayoulegengweipoqiedexinqingheguangkuodewutai。zaihuiyiluzhong,tashuo:“yinweicong80niandaizhongqiyihou,woduocihuiguo。faxianguoneinianqingrendegudianwenhuashuipingyijingriqudiluo,xuduorenzhizhuzhongwuyuzhuiqiu,shehuifengqirixia。woxiangruguonengzaiyoueryuanzhongkaishe‘gushichangyou’dekecheng,yichanggeheyouxidefangshi,jiaoertongchangsonggushi,jiukeyitongguojiaojitamenxiaohaizisongduheyinyonggushidexunlian,laipeiyanghetigaowomenxiayidaihaizimendedaodepinzhiyuwenhuachengdu。”

huozhezhengshiyejiayingshenshangzheifenwenhuachuanchengdeqianglieshiminggan,shitabeirenmenpingjiawei“chuanqunzideshi”。chenchuanxingrenweizheichengjieletadelaoshigusui。“dianyingliyouyiduan,dangtacongshanghaipiaodaotaiwan,shenmexinglidoumeidai,daidejiushiguxianshengdeshangkebiji。ranhoutayibeiziyiguxianshengdechuanren,guxianshengshicidebozhongzhe、jiaoyuzhedejiaoduchufa,tawannianyizhizhengli、tuiguangguxianshengdezhuzuo,rangguxianshengbeishirengengduogengshendirenshi。”

weibiaoxianyejiayingshenshang“shiyucunzai”dezhuti,chenchuanxingteyizaiyingpianzhongchangshiyizhongshicidejiegou:“wojibenshangzhongjianleyizhongxiangxiang,congciheshideguanxi,xiaolinghezhangdiaolimiancibenshendejiegou,qugouxiangzhengbudianyingdexushuyujianjijiegou。limianmeigezhangjiedexushuxian,doubushixianxingde,huiyoufanfutiaoyue,youdianxiangcilimiandehuixuanduiying。”yiyejiayingdebeijinglaozhaipingmiantuweilinggan,chenchuanxingyidamen、maifang、neiyuan、tingyuan、xixiangfangweizhangjietimuzhankaixushu,yijianliyigeshidejusuo。zuihouyigezhangjie,meiyoumingzi,yisuzaoyigekongdejingjie:“zheigekongyoujicengyiyi,yigeshizaixianshicengmianshang,tabeijingdelaozhaibujianle,yijingbeichaile,jianadadefangziyechaile,taiwanzhuguodefangzi,suiranzaiyefeichangcanpoqiebeibierenjuzhu。yejiushishuo,yexianshengjingliguodezheixierengenshidouyijingxiaoshidiaole,duitalaishuo,tongguoshiciyijingchuantoulezheixiecengci,buweizheixiedongxisuokun,yijingdadaokongdejingjie。”

“剩将余世付吟哦”

yejiayingdegushicichuanchenglixiangzhong,duiyinsongdiaodexuexichuancheng,shifeichangzhongyaodeyihuan。yujinnianlaiguoxuerezhongdaiyoufeiyibaohuxingzhiderenaojingguanxiangbi,yejiayingduiyinsongdetuichong,jianlizaitayujishinianchuangzuoyujiaoxuezhongduigudianshicitezhideshenrulijiezhishang。

wannian,yejiayingcenglvcitandaozaizijishushiniandejiaoxueshengyazhong,zuiweiyihanzhishi,bianshibucengzhenzhengdailingxueshengwenxichuantongshicideyinsong:zaonianzaitaiwanjiaoshushi,zijishangqienianqingerxiuse,buhaoyisidaixueshengzaiketanggongkaiyinsong;houlaizaiguowaijiaoxue,yaoyongyingyujiaoshougudianshici,yinsongzirantanbushang;zaihoulaiguiguojiaoshu,neishisuoxiangderengranduoshiruhechuanshouzijiduishicidelijie。

yejiayingweiheduigushicideyinsongrucinianzizaizi,huozheshuo,womendaodiyinggairuhelijiegushicideyinsong?dui“xinwenhua”yundongzhihoudexuduorenlaishuo,gushicideyinsongsihuzaichuchangbianbeidingweiweiyufuhuoguoshidedongxi。luxunzaisanwen《congbaicaoyuandaosanweishuwu》zhong,bianshengdongdimiaohuiguodangshisishuzhongdeyinsong:“houlai,womendeshengyinbiandixiaqule,jingxiaqule,zhiyoutahaidashenglangduzhe:‘tieruyi,zhihuititang,yizuojiejingni;jinpoluo,diandaolinliyi,qianbeiweizuihe……’woyixinzheishijihaodewenzhang,yinweidudaozheili,tazongshiweixiaoqilai,erqiejiangtouyangqi,yaozhe,xianghoumianaoguoqu,aoguoqu。”

renminwenxuechubanshebianshensonghong,zaibeidazhongwenxibiyedaorenwenshegongzuohou,diyicizailaoxianshengneilizhidaoleyinsongdiao。“dangshirenwenshegudianbuzhurenlindonghaixiansheng,shengzhangzaiminnanxiaoshancun,minnanyubenlaijiushizhongguyindehuohuashi,neiliyinsongfengqihensheng,taxiaoshihoujiuxuehuileyinsong。yiciliaoqilai,wojiuqingtayinsongyigetingting,yitinghenhaoting。houlaiwojuedeyinggaibaoliuxialai,jiurangtaluyin。”yeshicongneishiqi,songhongkaishiyouyishidisoujizhenglilaoxianshengdegushiciyinsong。jiujingheweiyinsong?“jiehuyugechangyulangsongzhijiandeyinsong,shichuantongshigeyizhongfeichangteshudesongduxingshi。yinsongdetedian,yinsongdiaoshimeiyoupuzide,muqianzhihuozainianlingzai70suiyishangdelaoyidaixuezhedekouzhong,shijidaifajuehebaohudezhonghuaminzufeiwuzhiwenhuayichan。”

yejiayingzai1992nianxiezuodezhangwen《tangudianshigezhongxingfagandongzhitezhiyuyinsongzhichuantong》zhong,shenrulunshuleyinsongyugudianshigemibukefendeguanxi,yijijintianderenmenweiherengyaojichengshigedeyinsongchuantong:“worenweizhongguogudianshigezhishengming,yuanshibansuizheyinsongzhichuantongerchengzhangqilaide。gudianshigezhongdexingfagandongzhitezhi,yeshiyuyinsongzhichuantongmiqiejiehezaiyiqide。erqiezhongshiyinsongdezheizhonggulaodechuantong,bingfeiruyibanrenguannianzhongsuorenweidebaoshouheluowu,erqiejishijiujinrixifangzuixindewenxuelilunlaikan,yerengshiyouqizhongyaoxingde。”

yejiayingjieyongxifangpipingshuyuyanjiuzhongguogudianshigeshi,faxiangenbenwufazhaodaoduiying“xing”deshuyu,shouciqifa,tafaxian“xing”zheizhongyizhijieganfaweizhudexiezuofangshi,zhengshizhongguogudianshicidetezhisuozai。erzhongguoshigedeyinsongchuantongzaozai《shijing》deshidaibianxingchengle。zai《zhouli·chunguan·zongbo》xiapianbianyou“dasile……yileyujiaoguozi,xing、dao、feng、song、yan、yu”dejishu,yejiayingfenxirenwei,qizhong“feng”yu“song”dexunlianzhengshijiyaoguozimenbashigebeiduxialai,erqieyaoxuehuishigedeyinsongzhishengdiao。jinguanzheizhongzaoqishijiaozhongdeyinsongxunlian,zuichushichuyu“fushiyanzhi”deshiyongmude,danzaiqituolizheizhongshiyongmudehou,gengjiaxianshichuzhongguogudianshigezaixingshifangmianzhongshiduncuoyunlvdetese,yijizaibenzhifangmiansuoxingchengdezhongshixingfagandongzhizuoyongdetese。

zuoweiyizhongdutidanyindeyuyanwenzi,zhongguogudianshigejiezougandexingcheng,zhuyaoyilaiyushijuzhongcizidezuhezaiyinsongshisuozaochengdeyizhongduncuodelvdong。zheizhongduncuo,jiandanlaishuo,jiushijiepaiyupingze。zheiyeshizaikouerxiangchuan、xitongfuzadeyinsongzhong,suozuixuzhuyidedifang。

yinsongsuoyizhongyao,shiyinweigudaideshirenbujinbansuiyinyongzuoshi,haibansuiyinyonglaigaishi。tangshizhongzhuru“yinanyigezi,nianduanshujingxu”“taoyexinglingcundiwu,xinshigaibazizhangyin”zheiyangdejuzibushengmeiju。yejiayingrenwei,zhengshizaizheiyinsongshengzhong,shigetongshiganfalezuozheyuduzhe。“jiuzuozheeryan,naishichanshengyuqiduiziranjiejirenshijiewanshiwanwudeyizhong‘qingdongyuzhong’deguanhuaizhiqing;erjiuduzheeryan,zezhengshitouguoshigedeganfa,yaoshizheizhong‘qingdongyuzhong’deguanhuaizhiqing,dedaoyizhongshengshengbuyideyanxu。”

yinsongdemeilihaizaiyu,tabutongyuyibeigudingpuqudegequ,shidusongzheyizijideganshouduishigezuochudegexingquanshi,zheizhengshiyejiayingzaiyingpianzhongsuoshuo:“yinsongzhuyaoshinizijiduiyushigedeneihan、tadeganqing、tadeyijingyouyizhongtihui,youyizhonggongming,jiaoshirendeshengmingzainishengyinlimianfuhuo。”

chuleniansongheyinsong,chenchuanxingzaiyingpianzhonghaiyaoqingribenpeiyindashizuotengcongming,jiangdufude《qiuxingbashou》yongyalehexiandailedefangshibiaoxianchulai,tongguoyigenvgaoyinhenanzhongyindeyinchang,suzaochuyigedutedeshengyinkongjian。“jiangzheisanzhongshengyinfangshibicijiaozhiqilai,youdianxiangzhijinyiyang,bicijinmijiaocuo。”chenchuanxingshuo。

suiranyinsongshigudianshicideshengminglisuozai,danshichuanchengqilaibingfeiyishi。songhonggaosuwo,tayetingguoyejiayingdeyinsong,juedeyexianshengdeguanhuadiaoyinsong,bianhuataida,buhaoxue;ciwai,tazhuyidaoyexianshengyoushizaiyinsongzhongyebuguanpingzezhangduandeguilv。weici,tajianyikeyiyongputonghuayinsongminnanyudediaozi,jizhanxianpingzegelv,yeyiyuxuexi。buguo,duiyinsongzhongyoushiweifanpingzhangzeduandeqingkuang,yejiayingzaidoubankaishedekecheng《yileyujiaoguozi:gushiciyinsongke》zhong,zhuanmenzuoguojieshi:“henduobudongdeyinsongderen,yinweibuzhidaozenmeyinsong,taiziyoule,zhaobudaoyigeguiju。suoyitamenzijizhuomochuyigeguiju:fanshipingshengjiutuozhang,fanshizeshengjiusuoduan。zheijiutaijiandanle,bushizheiyangjiandande,yaokanshigedeqingganheneirong,youshihouzeshengyekeyituozhang。haiyourushengzi,youp、t、kdeshouwei,yuanzeshangyaomashangbashengyintingzhifengbi,bunengtuozhang,keshizaishigeyinsongdequweishang,fashengsuiranshiduancude,danshishengyiwaiyouqiang,shengkeyisuoduan,qianghaishikeyituozhang。suoyishizaishuoqilai,yinsongdezhangduanmeiyouyigejueduideyinleguizekeyizunxun。weiyikeyizunxundejiushigelvbenshenzirandejiezou。”

yingpianzhong,yejiayingyinsonglezijichuangzuodeyiqueci《zhegutian》:“guanglejuntianshimozhi,linglunchuizhuzichengchi。yingzhongbaixuewurenhe,yuwailanjingyoumengsi。mingyuexia,yechaochi,weibotiaodisongweici。yiyincanghairunenghui,bianshiqianqiugongcishi。”tadepengyoushenbinghejieshilebeihoulanjingdegushi,jushuozaiyuangushenhuazhong,liangtoulanjingkeyixianggejiqiangongli,tongguohushengtonghua。yejiayingjiezhejieshidao:“woshuo‘laoquyuniangengjiduo’,wohaibuzhidaonenghuojinian,yexushidanxizhijiandeshiqing。wojiujiaodajiayinshi,wojuedezheigeyaobatachuanxiaqu,suoyi‘shengjiangyushifuyine’。woshuo‘yaotianruyoulanjingzai’,shenxianshengshuodeneigelanjingkeyigeyangchuanyu,woliuxiadezheiyidianhaishangdeyiyin,yexujianglaihuiyouyigerenhuitingdao,huigandong。xianzaiderendoubujieshouyemeiguanxi。fanzhengwojiushiliuxialai,jiuzheiyang。”

(本文写作参考叶嘉莹口述、张候萍撰写《红蕖留梦——叶嘉莹谈诗忆往》、叶嘉莹著《多面折射的光影:叶嘉莹自选集》等书,感谢须文蔚、张鸣老师对采访的帮助)


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