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重说高罗佩与“狄公案”

作者:admin 2020-10-09 我要评论

20shiji50niandaiyilai,chutangmingxiangdirenjie(630~700nian)yijudge dee(zhiyiweidifaguan)detouxian,jishenyushijiezhumingzhentanzhilie,bingbeiyuweidongfangfuermosi。zheiyiqiedouyingguigongyuzhuminghan...

20世纪50年代以来,初唐名相狄仁杰(630~700年)以Judge Dee(直译为“狄法官”)的头衔,跻身于世界著名侦探之列,并被誉为“东方福尔摩斯”。这一切都应归功于著名汉学家、荷兰人高罗佩。正是他以一己之力,在十几年里创作出以中国古代为背景的狄公案系列侦探小说(Judge Dee Mysteries),包括14部长篇、2部中篇和8部短篇,从而使得神探狄仁杰成为中西文化交流史上的标志性人物。 今年是高罗佩110周年诞辰,关于他和狄公系列小说,研究者有无新的发现?

 

高罗佩晚年在东京书房著述时的留影

 

文/张凌

《武则天四大奇案》和狄公系列小说有何微妙的关联?

20shiji30niandaihouqi,zaihelanzhuribenshiguandanrenzhuliyiyuandegaoluopeicengduociqianwangzhongguolvxing,canjiagezhongwenhuahuodong。jutabenrenhuiyi,1936niancengzaishanghaimianhuiguodirenjiedehouren,“naishiyiweishifenkejingdezhangzhe,jingtonggudaishuhuajianshang,xizaiciciwumianjinshichuyulijiedefanfanertan,yinweibizhedangshishangweiyujiandaoshisinianzhihou,zijijinghuitibizhuanxieyouguanqizhumingxianzudexiliexiaoshuo”(jian《tiedingan》qianyan)。duifangshifoudirenjiedehourenyijingnanyikaozheng,danzheiyiduanyixiangbudaodexiehou,huoxubianshigaoluopeiyudigongjieyuandezhaoshi。

gaoluopei1910nianchushengyuhelanzutefen(zutphen),benmingluobote·hansi·fangulike(robert hans van gulik),qifuweilian·yagebu·fangulikeshihelanhuangjiajunduidejunyiguan。1915nian,luobotegensuijiarenyuanduzhongyang,zaiheshudongyindu(rujindeyindunixiya)juzhuguo8nian,chucijiechudaozhongguowenhua。1923nian,quanjiafanhuihelandingju,tazainaimeigen(nijmegen)shilizhongxuedushu,keyushizixuezhongwen,kaishishiyongzhongwenming“gaoluopei”(“gao”laiziqixingshigulikzhongdegu,“luopei”zelaizirobertdehewenyinyi),bingzaixueshuqikan《zhongguo》shangluxufabiaoyanjiulunwen。1930nian9yue,gaoluopeijinrulaidundaxue,xuexizhongwenheriwen,1932nian2yuehuodexueshixuewei,houlaizhuanruwutelezhidaxue,1934nian4yueyilunwen《mifeijiqi〈yanshi〉》huodedongfangyuyanxueshuoshixuewei,1935nian3yueyouyilunwen《matoumingwanggujinzhushuoyuanliukao》huodezhexueyuwenxueboshixuewei,suijijinruwaijiaobu,beirenmingweihelanzhuribenshiguanzhuliyiyuan。

gaoluopeizaihelanzhurishiguangongzuo7nianzhihou,youyutaipingyangzhanzhengbaofa,yu1942nian7yue30richengchuancheliriben。linxingcangcuzhiji,tasuishenxiedailejibenzhongwenshujizuoweiduwu,qizhongbaokuozhangpianbaihuaxiaoshuo《wuzetiansidaqian》,zhengshicishudaoyinlehoulaidigonganxiliexiaoshuodexiezuo。juqizichuangaosuoyan,zhidao1944niandiaorenzhongqinghou,tacaizhenzhengkanguo《wuzetiansidaqian》,bingshenganxingqu,1948nianqianhouzaimeiguohuashengdungongzuoshiwanchengfanyi。

英译本《狄公案》1949年初版封面

 

1949nian,《wuzetiansidaqian》deyingyiben《digongan》(dee goong an:three murder cases solved by judge dee)zairibendongjingchuban。guanyucishuchubandeqianhouqingxing,gaoluopeicengyouguoruxiajishu:

dangwofaxianshushishangyoudaliangderibennianqingzuojiaxiedeguanyuzhijiageheniuyuedesandengzhentanxiaoshuoshi,wojuedingfabiaowode《digongan》deyingyiben,yixiangneixiezuojiazhanshigudaizhongguozhentanxiaoshuozhongyoufeichangduodehaoticai。wozijichuqianchubanleneibenshu,jieguotashifenchangxiao,zailiugeyueneiyijingbachengbenlaohuilaile,erqiehaizhuandaolekeguandelirun。zhongguoheribendezuojiamenhenxihuankanneibenshu,danbingbujuedezijibixuxieneiyangdexiaoshuo。tamentanchengdishuo,duitamenlaishuo,neigezhutiquefa“yiguoqingqu”。yinciwojuedingzuoweiyizhongshiyanlaijixuxieneizhongxiaoshuo,yushiwojiezhexiele《tongzhongan》。(jian《dahanxuejiagaoluopeichuan》)

《wuzetiansidaqian》youming《digongan》《dilianggongquanchuan》,youqingdaiwumingshisuozuo,qian30huijiangshudirenjierenshandongchangpingxianlingshizhiduansanzhuangyiandegushi,hou34huizeshitarujinghouzhengsuchaogang、yuwuhoudangyudouzhidouyongdejingli。gaoluopeijiequleqian30huiyichengyingwen,yinweizaitakanlai,qianbanbudetananqingjiexiangdangjingcai,qiejibenzuncongxifangzhentanxiaoshuodechangguiyuzhunze,zuyiyinqixifangduzhedexingqu。

ciyingyibenyuhoulaigaoluopeizijizhuanxiededigonganxiliexiaoshuozhijiandelianxi,shijishangpoweifuzaerweimiao。congneironglaikan,yingyibenbaokuosangeanjian,ji“limingshuangshian”、“guaishian”he“dushaxinfuan”,qizhong“dushaxinfuan”lidigongjianliangshanghuichenluoruchawanbingyoucihuangwuduwulaiyuandexijie,houlaibeijieyongzai《huangjinan》zhong;“guaishian”libizhoushiyurentongjian、yonggangzhenmouhaiqifudeqingjie,zai《tiedingan》liyeyoubushaojiejian,zhishizaiqinglishangduinvzhurengongyousuohuihu,hendachengdushanggaibianleyuanzuozhongxinhenshoula、shiebushedechuantongyinfuxingxiang。lingwai,digongdesidasuicongmarong、qiaotai、hongliang、taogan,yedoushicong《wuzetiansidaqian》zhongzhijiejieyongerlai,gezijingliyeyouxiangsizhichu,buguogaoluopeiduiyuxinggesuzaoshifenjingxin,yincirenwuxingxiangxiandegengweifengmanershengdong。

congxingshieryan,yingyiben《digongan》jibenyanxilezhongguochuantongdezhanghuiti,yongyizuduijuzuoweizhangjiehuimu,kaipianchuyouyishouxunyushiheyiduanyinqizhengwendexiezi,weilezhaoguxifangduzhe,haibianxielerenwubiao,bingfuyouqianyan、houji,zhezhongjieshaozhongguogudaisifazhiduyucankaodezhongyingwendianji。gaoluopeizaichuangzuo“diyixilie”dewubuxiaoshuo(ji《huangjinan》《hubinan》《tongzhongan》《migongan》《tiedingan》)shi,yewanquanzunzhaotongyangdetili。zhidezhuyideshi,zaitabenrenshouzangde1903nianshanghaiguangyishujushibanyinshualiujuanxiaokaiben《wuzetiansidaqian》zhong,di15huiyudi16huizhijiancharuleyiduandancizhongde“madiaokaipian”;zaiyingyiben《digongan》zhongdetongyangweizhi,yejiaruleyigejianduandechaqu,xiechengzhongguoxiquzhongyizhexidexingshi,danshizheiyitesezaihoulaidegaoluopeidigonganxiaoshuozhongweizaichuxianguo。

日译本《迷宫案》1951年初版封面

 

chuquyishangzheixiejiaoweimingxiandefangmian,ruguozixiduibiyingyiben《digongan》hezhongwenyuanben《wuzetiansidaqian》,bianhuifaxianzheiliangzhongwenbenzhijianhaicunzaibushaoxijiechayi。gaoluopeizaifanyishi,shanquleyuanshuzhongyixiesuosuiwuweideneirongherenwu,zhezhongtuchuzhuyaoqingjie,henduojutichulideshoufanaizhiwenciyongyu,douzaihoulaidexiaoshuozhongchuxianguo;mouxiedifangyeyousuotianjia,huoshiweilexiangxifangduzhejieshaozhongguowenhuadezhishidian,huoshiweilexuanranqifen、zengqiangxuannianerxiangshuchangjinghuojingguo。chucizhiwai,zhongwenyuanbenzhonghaiyouyigeyouyuxieyinerzaochengdeguanjianxiansuo,gaoluopeizaifanyishizuoleqiaomiaodebiantongchuli,huoxuzhengshishouciqifa,houlaitazaichuangzuo《migongan》shiyeyongxieyinzuoweizhongyaoguanjie。zaimouzhongchengdushang,tayijiangciyibenchangshigaizaochengleyibuleisixifangzhentanxiaoshuodezuopin,huozheshuozhengshidigongan“diyixilie”dechuxing。kanbazhihou,fangcaimingbaiweihetasuihouchuangzuode《tongzhongan》yichushoujiuxiandexiangdangchengshu,wocaicetayongyingyibendemingyiyuxianyanlianleyibian,congchubanhoudeyulunhepingjiazhongkeyiguanqihouxiao,yidandedaolingrenmanyidehuikui,duiyuzheizhongzhonggaizaodexiaoguozishixinxindazeng,yushijinjiezhebiankaishizixingchuangzuo。

1950nian3yue,gaoluopeicaiyongzhanghuitidexingshi,wanchengleyidigongweizhujiaodediyibuxiaoshuo《tongzhongan》,danshiyouyushuzhongyouduifojiaotudexiaojimiaoxie,zaodaoleribenchubanshangdejujue——zhidao1953nian,cishuderiyibencaishoucifabiaoyuzazhi《zhentanjulebu》,yingwenbenyu1958nianyouyingguomaikeer·yuesefuchubanshechuban。suihoutayouxiechu《migongan》,youqihaoyou、ribenhanxuejiayufanshanxiongjiaoshouyichengriyu,zhumingzhentanxiaoshuojiajianghuchuanluanbuqinzizuoxu,1951nianyoudongjingjiangtanshechuban,mingwei《miluzhisharen》。

zaicicharuyiduanyishi:1952nian1yue,gaoluopeiquanjiazaixianggangdujia,“dangwoheshifangzaijiulongyigepianpidexiaoxianglixunzhaoyiweipengyoudejiashi,womenfeichangourandikandaoleyigexiaosimiao,tashiweilejiniansongchaoweidadezhentanbaogongjianzaode。zaipangbiandejitanshangjingranbaifangzhedigongdesuxiang!womenshaolexiang,wofurenjianchishuo,dangshizailaofaguanyuwozhijianjianlileyizhongyuanfen,yigeshenmideniudai。houlaifashengdeshiqingsihuzhengmingletashiduide”。

1952nian2yue,gaoluopeidiaorenyinduxindelijieshilezhanglizhaijiaoshou,zaiqibangzhuxiajiang《migongan》zixingyichengzhongwen,1953nianyouxinjiaponanyangshangbaoshechuban,mingwei《direnjieqian》。youyucishushitabenrenzizhuandeweiyizhongwenben,yincigewaijuyoujiazhiheyiyi。jiuzaijinnian8yue,yuanchubanshetuichulezheiyichubandeyingyinben,yishixianjigaoluopei110zhouniandanchendeyifenheli。

英文本何以在西方走红?

gaoluopeiqichubingwuyichubanxiaoshuodeyingwenben,zhishijiangqizuoweiyubeituichudezhongwenbenheriwenbendexiezuodigao,houlaiyoupengyoubiaoshiduizheizhongxinxingzhentanxiaoshuopoganxingqushi,tacaijuedingchangshiyier。1956nian,《migongan》yingwenbenyouhelanfanhuweichubanshechuban。digonganxiaoshuoshoucizaixifangshijieliangxiang,jiudedaole“zhentannvwang”ajiasha·kelisididechengzan:“wofeichangxihuanzheibenshu,zhengbenshuchongmanshaojiandemeilihexinxiangan,wozhutaqudegengdadechenggong。”

duibiyueduzhongwenziyibenyuyingwenbenzhihou,bunanfaxianzheibingfeishidanchundezhongyinghuyi,shuoshiyishuliangzuocaidui。zaiyuyanfenggeshang,zhongwenziyibenjinsibaihuaxiaoshuo,wenzimingbaixiaochang,qiancizaojuyoujiangongli,qizhonghaichuanchayoushiwenjieyu,yipaigufengguyun,wanquanshizhenduidangshidezhongwenduzhequnerzuodezhongguoshibaihuaxiaoshuo。zaiquanshudekaipianchu,tayizhaochuantongtianciyishou,diaoji《linjiangxian》:

yunzhuanhongjunbaowanyou,rixingheyuetaixian。renjianwanwubentianran,huihuitianwangmi,baoyingzongwupian。

zaiweiguchengminfumu,caihuawankouzhengchuan。gujinduoshaoshenghexian,jitianxingdadao,weishixueqiyuan。

zaifanguanyingwenben,youyumianxiangduizhongguolishiwenhuaquefalejiedexifangduzhe,yinciwenziqianxianpingyi,miaoshuxinghejieshaoxingdeduanluogengduo,zaixijiechuliyouqishirenwuduihuashang,daoshishejidegengjiajingxin,yegengduojiqiao,yibianyinqidazhongdeyueduxingqu。congyingwenbenzhong,youshisinengtihuidaogaoluopeineizhongniudaogeji、bunengjinxingdewunai,zhideyiweiqianjin。zheizhongjiqizhaogubutongduzhequnjieshounenglidezuofa,qiantibianshiyaonengshulianzhangwobutongyuzhongdexiezuo,fouzeyouxinwuli,yishiwangran,ergaoluopeiqueshichenggongdizuodaolezheiyidian。wuyonghuiyan,tashixiaixuanjideren,zaizhongwenbenlixuandezhuyaoshiwenzigongfu,gushibenshendaozaiqici,yincizaixiezuoshoufashanglvexianpingpuzhixu;erzaiyingwenbenlixuandezeshiguangbodezhishi,shangzhichaotangzhiduxiazhijiajuqiwuwusuobuyou,bingqieshizhongbaochirenzhenyanjindetaidu,zhengruzhumingxuezhewuxiaolingsuoyan:“gaoshidebolanhezaxuediandingletachuangzuo《digongan》dejianshijichu。lijiezheigebeijing,cainengmingletadechuangzuolidenapayigexiweideqingjie,shenzhiyicaoyimuyipingyizhan,jihuwuyiziwuchuchu。”

1957nian,linyutangyongyingwensuozhude《wuzetianchuan》youyingguohainiemanchubanshechuban,gaoluopeizai《tiedingan》qianyanyuqitajibenxiaoshuodehoujizhongjunyoutiji。linyutangcishuzhongguanyudigongdejishusuiranjizhongzaiqishitushengyadehoubanduan,danshizaixinggeyanxingfangmian,youyidingdecankaojiazhi,tebieshizai《guangzhouan》zhongshujitanggaozongbingwei、chaotinggepaihuxiangzhengdoushi,gaoluopeihuoxuconglindezhuzuozhongyousuojiejian。

1958nian,gaogongkaishizheshouchuangzuo“xinxilie”。tatingcongxifangduzhedeyijianheyaoqiu,zheyisuoduanxiaoshuopianfu,jianshaoshuzhongrenwudeshuliang(tongguoanpaidigongyuyimingqinsuixietongbananlaidadaozheiyimude),zaiticaishangyeyousuogaibian,shanquzhangjiehuimu、kaipianxunyushihexiezi,yibianyonggengduodepianfulaimiaoshurenwuxingge,gushiqingjieyeyizichuangweizhu。tayuanbenjiangduanpianxiaoshuoji《duananji》zuowei“xinxilie”deshoushanzhizuo,zaishuzhongfuyouzuopinnianbiao,houlaiyingchubanshedeyaoqiu,youxiechule“xinxinxilie”deliangbuzuopin,jieshidigongduziyirentanandegushi。

1967nian7yue,gaogongfanhuihelanhaiyadujia,dezhizijishenhuanfeiai、lairiwuduo,rengranmanzhejiarenquanligongzuo。genjuchuanjisuoshu,tachuangzuozuihouyibuxiaoshuodelinggan,laiziyu30duonianqianshenweilaidundaxuexueshengshizaibalidelvxinghefaguogequ《shirenzhiling》,dangshitacengyufaguozhimingnvgeshouluxiang·bowayeyiqizaibowasenlinzhongqima,“zaibaliduguodeneiduansuiyuehenlangmanhefuyoushiyi,youruboximiyarendeshenghuo”。zairenshengzuihouderizili,tazhengyebofangzhuliye·geleikedechangpian,yinweiqizhongyeyouluxiang·bowayede《shirenzhiling》,jianchizaibingqingehuadeqianyewanchengle《zhongqiuan》,liangtianzhihou,yu9yue24riyushizhangci。

zicong1951nian《migongan》riyibenchubanyilai,digonganxiliexiaoshuoyibeiyicheng29zhongwenzi,zhijinchangxiaoquanqiu。guanyuqijiazhihechuanbo,helanzhuminghanxuejiayiweide(wilt l. idema)cengjingshuoguo,20shiji50niandaihouqi,digonganxiaoshuocengzaixifangshijieyinfaguorechao。“wodangshihaishiyiminggaozhongsheng,meifengdangditushuguangouruzuixintuichudedigonganxiaoshuoshi,wozongshinuliqiangxiantouyigejieyue。tushuguanzhizaixingqiwuwanshangkaifang,wobixuganzaixingqiliuwanshangzhiqianduwanxinshu,yinweiwodefuqinyeyaokan。zai1963nianjinrudaxuezhiqian,woduizhongguodesuoyoulejiedoulaizidigonganxiaoshuo,haiyousaizhenzhudeyibuzuopin。zaiyingyushijieli,zheiyixiliexiaoshuoyizhiliuxingdao70niandai,zaifaguochixudegengjiu,zhidaojintian,rengyouzimingweigaoluopeichuanrendezuojiashuxiexuji。”digonganxiaoshuohuichuanzhongguohou,“jinnianlaichuxianlejibudianshilianxuju,qineirongsuiranbuxianyugaoluopeidezuopin,danshikeyigongpingdishuo,ruguomeiyougaoluopeidezaoqichuangzuo,jiubuhuichanshengrujinzheixiedianshiju。zheijiushidegaoluopeichengwei20shijizhongxiwenhuajiaoliushishangduyiwuerderenwu。xuduoxifangzuojiacengjingcongzhongguowenhuazhongdedaolinggan,youxiezuopinyecengbeiyichengzhongwen,danshiwurennengxianggaoluopeidedigonganneiyangzaizhongguoguangweiliuchuan,bingduizhongguorendexiangxianglichanshengrucijudadeyingxiang”。yishangsuoyan,queshiduigaoluopeijiqizuopindegongyunpingjia。


1.benzhanzunxunxingyeguifan,renhezhuanzaidegaojiandouhuimingquebiaozhuzuozhehelaiyuan;2.benzhandeyuanchuangwenzhang,qingzhuanzaishiwubizhumingwenzhangzuozhehelaiyuan,buzunzhongyuanchuangdexingweiwomenjiangzhuijiuzeren;3.zuozhetougaokenenghuijingwomenbianjixiugaihuobuchong。

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