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郑克鲁:法兰西文学的信使

作者:admin 2020-10-17 我要评论

tadexiangfa,huozheyaojishirenliuxiayidianyouyongdedongxi,zheijiushitafanyidezuopin。 fanyijia、wenxueshijiazhengkelu。taweiwomenliuxiale1700duowanzidefaguowenxuefanyi,zaishengmingdezuihouliangnian,gengyi...

“他的想法,活着要给世人留下一点有用的东西,这就是他翻译的作品。”

翻译家、文学史家郑克鲁。他为我们留下了1700多万字的法国文学翻译,在生命的最后两年,更以一人之力翻译完成《雪莱全集》

 

“法兰西的一流作品译完了”

9yue20riwan,fanyijiazhengkeluzaishanghaiyijiayiyuanzouwanshengmingzuihoudelvcheng。zhuyuanneiduanshijian,tadexuesheng、shanghaishifandaxuejiaoshouzhuzhenwudadoupeibanzaipang。“zoudehenturan,tadeshengbingheyibanrenbuyiyang,meiyouduoshaotongku,yemeiyouduoshaoweiju。”tahaijide,jintian6yue,zai“feizhouyingyuwenxueshi”dexiangmukaitishang,laoshihaizaixianxiahuichangzuolejiqingyangyideyanjiang。

“tadexiangfa,huozheyaojishirenliuxiayidianyouyongdedongxi,zheijiushitafanyidezuopin。”rangzhuzhenwujingyadeshi,zaishengmingdezuihouliangnian,yixiangyifaguowenxuefanyiweizhudezhengkelu,jingfanyiwancheng《xuelaiquanji》,yigezaihenduorenyanliyiyishengwanchengdoubuweiguodechengji。

zhengkeluqushidexiaoxichuanlai,《shijiewenxue》zazhizhubiangaoxing,teyizaipengyouquanfachuzhengkeluzai1977nianzazhifukanhaoshangfabiaodediyipianfanyizuopin,baerzhakededuanpianxiaoshuo《zhangshouyaoshui》。congneishiqi,zhengkeluzai40duonianshijianli,weirenmenliuxialebaokuo《chahuanv》《beicanshijie》《gaolaotou》《hongyuhei》《shenmidao》《faguoshixuan》《faguomingjiasanwenxuan》《faguomingjiaduanpianxiaoshuoxuan》zaineide1700duowanzifaguowenxuefanyizuopin。yiguoshidexuezhexietianzhenzai《zhengkelujiaoshouyinxiangji》yiwenzhongcengtidao,zhengkeluyizhuzongzishushenzhiyijingchaoguofulei、xuyuanchong、haoyunsanweizhumingfayufanyijiayizuozishudezonghe。

zhengkeludecengzufu,shiwanqingzhumingsixiangjia、《shengshiweiyan》yishuzuozhezhengguanying。yicifangtanzhong,zhengkelutanqizheiweizhumingdecengzufu,cengshuozijidexiezuonengliyexugentayoudianyinyuan。shangzhongxueshi,zhengkeluzuiganxingqudeshiesuwenxuehefaguowenxue。1957nian,tazuichubaokaodeshibeijingdaxueeyuzhuanye,keshoudangshizhongsuguanxiehuayingxiang,beijingdaxueneinianbuzhaoshoueyuzhuanyexuesheng,tazhihaogaibaofayuzhuanye,congciyufaguowenxuejieyuan。daxuebiyehou,qiahaoganshangzhongguoshekeyuanwaiwensuoshoucizhaoshouyanjiusheng,zhengkelugensuilijianwugongdufaguowenxue,biyehouliusuogongzuo,zhengshikaiqifaguowenxueyanjiuzhilu。

dangshideshekeyuanwaiwensuo,mingjiahuicui,lijianwu、bianzhilin、fengzhi、qianzhongshudengyipijingtongwaiguowenxuedezhumingzuojia,duoyizhuanruwenxueyanjiuyufanyi。shirenbianzhilin,yeshiyingyushigedezhongyaofanyizhe,cenggaosuzhengkelu“nianqingrenyeyaogaoyidiandangdaiwenxue”,zheiyeweitahoulaijiangbishengjinglitourudaodangdaiwenxuedeyanjiuyuyijiemaixialezhongzi。

1969nian,waiwensuobeijitixiafangdaotongxian、shisanling、xinyangheshouxiandengdi。zhengshizaineiduanshijianli,zhengkelujiangyibenyou2.6wancihuidefayucidian,fanfubeisongleliangbian,bingyueduledaliangbaerzhakedexiaoshuo。xiannian85suidefanyijiajinzhiping,dangshihezhengkeludoushiwaiwensuodeqingnianyanjiuzhe,zaidianhuazhongxiangwohuiyiqineiduanshiguang:“wojidewomenxiafangdeshihou,youshihouzaiyiqixiaxiangqi,tajiyilihenhao,bizheyanjingxiamangqi,womenhaoduorendouxiabuguota。tadeaihaoshixiaxiangqi,xihuanneixiedongnaozideshiqing。”

zhengkeluzuichudefanyi,duoyujinzhipinghezuowancheng。1973nian,zhongguogangjiarulianheguo,jixuyipishijiegeguodelishizhuzuo。waiwensuojiedaoyigerenwu,fanyifaguorenmolisi·buluoerde《helanshi》,qichuzhaoderenshiluodagang。“luodagangxianshengdagaimeishijian,houlaijiuweituowohezhengkelufanyi,tafanyiyiban,wofanyiyiban,jiufanyichulaile。”jinzhipinghuiyi。

liangrendefanyishoudaoluodagangdebiaoyang,diyicihezuoyukuai,tamenyoukaishiyiqifanyibaerzhakededuanpianxiaoshuo,bianshihoulaifabiaozai《shijiewenxue》fukanhaoshangdezuopin,zhengkelufanyideshi《zhangshouyaoshui》,jinzhipingfanyideshi《gaixieguizhengdemeimote》。houlai,liangrenjuedingyiqifanyiyixiezhangpian,kaolvdaofaguoxiaoshuojiaqiaozhi·sangdexiaoshuoqingxiangyupingmin,bijiaojinbu,erqiehenshaoweirensuozhuyi,bianshangyiyiqifanyitadezhangpianxiaoshuo《kangsuailuo》。jinzhipingduidangniandehezuochangjingyiranjiyiyouxin:“neihuierxianbafanyizhongchuxiandemingzitongyihaohou,gefangede,tafanyidebiwokuai,zongshiyaodengwo。《kangsuailuo》fenweishangxialiangbu,chabuduowuliushiwanzi,tadebufenzuiduofanyileyinianshijian,fanyiwanhou,jiuqufaguojinxiule。wofanyidemanyixie,zuihouquanbuchulaichabuduohualeliangnianshijian。”

zhengkeludefaguowenxuefanyizhong,xiaoshuozhiwai,fayushigepoweizhideguanzhu。zai2018nianxiezuode《woyufaguoshigedeyinyuan》yiwenzhongzhengkeluhuiyi,zhengshicong1980nianniandiqizaifaguojinxiudeliangnianjian,takaishidaliangsoujifayushigezuopin,yubeijianglaifanyi。huiguohou,youyumangyugezhongshiqing,zhidao80niandaimo,tadaoshanghaishifandaxuejixueshengkaishe“faguoshigexinshang”kechengshi,caikaishiluluxuxudifanyi。congzuichude《shilianzhezhige——faguoaiqingshixuan》《faguoshuqingshixuan》liangbenxiaocezi,daohoulaisanjuanbende《faguoshixuan》,zhengkelujihufanyilefaguozhongshijiyilaizhizhi20shijisuoyouzhongyaoshirendedaibiaozuopin。

fanyijia、zhongguoshekeyuanwaiwensuoyanjiuyuanguohongan,congdushushibiankaishiguanzhufaguoshirenbodelaier,houlaihaifanyiletadequanben《ezhihua》hesanwenshi《balideyouyu》。guohongandaowaiwensuoshi,zhengkeluyilikaineili,liangrensixiabingwutaiduojiaowang,danguohonganganjuedao,zhengkelufanyishigedejibenguandian,hezijichabiebuda。“yuyingwenbutong,fayuyuzhongguohanzijianyouyidinglianxi,yigeciyibandoushiliangsangeyinjie,fawendeyigeyinjiexiangdangyuyigehanzi,wojuedeyongzhongguoyuyandejiezouhuoyunlv,jibenkeyibafaguoshideweidaotixianchulai。bifangshuo,zuibiaozhundefawenshijiushishieryinjieshi——yalishandati。fawenshideshieryinjiekeyiyongshiergehanzifanyichulai,xingshishangwanquankeyiduiyingqilai。wodeguandianyuliangzongdaixianshengjibenyizhi,tafanyishieryinjieshi,jibenshangjiushishiergehanzi。zheiyidianduifawengelvshihenzhongyao,bodelaierdeshiquanshigelvshi,xianzaidabufenyizhebutaizhongshizheidian,wojuedezhengkeludeguandianyuwojibenyizhi。”guohonganshuo。

法国作家波伏瓦的著作《第二性》,郑克鲁所译为数不多的理论著作,他也因此获得第四届傅雷翻译出版奖

 

qiaohedeshi,2012nian,zhengkeluheguohonganyiqihuodedisijiefuleifanyichubanjiang。zhengkeludangshidedejiangzuopinshifaguozuojiabofuwadedaibiaozuo《dierxing》。tandaowangshangyixieduzheduiyuzheigeyibenbijiaoshengsedefankui,fanyijia,yeshidangshipingweizhiyideyuzhongxiantebiezhichu:“wofandaorenwei,bofuwadeyuanwenjiushineimeshengse,bukenengzaiyiwenzhonggaibianzheiyifengge。erqie,yaozhidao,zhengkeluxianshengfanyidehenduofaguoxiaoshuoheshigeshibushengsede。”

zhuzhenwuxiangwobijiaozhengkeluyufuleiyiwenfenggedebutong:“fuleixianshengnengbayuanwenhuachenghenhaodehanyu,ninengcongtadeyiwenzhongkanchuyuanwendejuxingjushi,danbuyingxiangyuedu,yefeichanghao;zhengkeluxianshengdeyiwenzehuadegengchedi,gengzhibai,gengyidu,geyoutedian。”zhishiyoushi,zhengkeluyehuiteyizaiyiwenzhongjiaruyixieshengpideci,biruzai《beicanshijie》zhong,tateyiyong“dongguanzaibao”,xingrongfulaizhujiaobarenmindejikufangzaixinshang。zheizhongmoshenggan,zaizhuzhenwukanlaizhengshiqifanyiliniandetixian:“yaoyouxindebiaoda,duzhebuguanglejiegushi,erqiexuehuilexindeci。”

“tafanyizuopin,xuanzeliangzhong,yigeshimingliudajia,yigeshimeiyoufanyiguode,erliuzuopinshibufanyide,suoyitashuotabafalanxideyiliuzuopinyijingfanyiwanle。”zhuzhenwushuo。zhishi,zheizhonglijieyuzhengkeluchengzhangdewenhuabeijingmibukefen。fanyijiayuanxiaoyizaifangtanzhongbianshuo:“zhenglaoshifanyitarenweishi‘yiliu’dezuopin,tadui‘yiliu’depingjiashibijiaogudiandepingjia,baokuoyijingchengweijingdiande19shijixianshizhuyizuopinhelangmanzhuyizuopin。”

用一生书写法国文学史

fanyijiazhiwai,zhengkeluhaiyoulingwailianggezhongyaoshenfen:wenxueshijiahejiaoyujia。yanjiuhefanyi,duitalaishuo,shiyigeyingbideliangmian。zaiyicifangtanzhong,zhengkelubiantandao:“woshiwenxueyanjiuchushen,suoyiwodefanyiduixianggengqingxiangyuxuanzeyouzhiqieweiyiguodewenxuezuopin。……fanyiyuyanjiushixiangfuxiangchengde。yanjiunengzhidaofanyiduixiangdexuanze,qieyouzhuyuxiechugaozhiliangdeyibenxuyan。20shiji80niandaizhijin,wodeyanjiuwangwangshizaijizijideyibenzuoxuhuoyingqitayizhezhiyuezuoxushizhankaide。”

zaishangshiji80niandaifengqiyunyongdewaiguowenxuesichaozhong,zhengkeluzaifanyizhiwai,chengdanledaliangdecongshubianxuanyuwenxueshixiezuo。1980nian,houhousidace、shoulule1000duobushijiegeguowenxuejingdianmingzhuneirongtiyaode《waiguowenxuezuopintiyao》,haiyousidajuanbadabende《waiguoxiandaipaizuopinxuan》,zaidushujiezaochenglejudayingxiang。zhengshicongneishiqi,xuduoduzhebaokuoxiezuozhecaijiechudaoyishiliu、chaoxianshizhuyi、heiseyoumo、cunzaizhuyi、xinxiaoshuodengxifangxiandaipaiwenxuedegezhongsichao。

zhengkeluzhengshizheiliangtaoshudesiweibianzhezhiyi,bingfanyileqizhonghaojipianfaguowenxuezuopin。jinzhipingxiangwohuiyi,“yuankejiaxianshengzhuanmenyanjiuxifangxiandaipai,tashiyigezhuanjia,renjiajiuqingtazuozhubian,lingwaizhaolejigefushou,donghengxun、zhengkelu、jinzixin,zonggongsigeren。dangshiwaiwensuoderenwuhenduo,biru《dabaikequanshu》limiandetiaomu,waiguomingzuojiachuanji,dadexiangmudajiadouyaocanjia”。

jihuzaitongyishiqi,zhengkeluhaicanyulezaiqibashiniandaizhijiaoyingxiangjudadeliangtaocongshu“chunfengyicong”he“lijiangyicong”debianji。1980nian,yinglijiangchubanshezhubianliushuoliangdeyaoqing,zhengkelufufuyiqidaoguilin,bangzhucehuahoulaide“nuobeierwenxuejiangzuojiacongshu”。tabudanhenkuaiqiaodingdiyijizhong10bendepianmu,zhaohaoleyizhe,erqiechengdanleqizhongyibenzhangpianxiaoshuo《diboyijia》defanyi。

zhengkeludewenxueshixiezuo,shiyushangshiji70niandaitayuliumingjiu、zhangyinglundengrenhebiande《faguowenxueshi》。qibaniandebianxieguocheng,rangtaduifaguozhongshijiwenxue、wenyifuxingshiqiwenxue、gudianzhuyiwenxueji19shijiwenxueyouleshenrulejie,yanjiuchengguobianshi1982nianchubande《faguowenxuelunji》。1984nian,zhengkeludaowuhandaxuerenjiaohou,wenxueshidexiezuogengchengweifuzhujiaoxuedetizhongzhiyi。yushi,《faguowenxuezonghengtan》《xiandaifaguoxiaoshuoshi》《faguoshigeshi》dengyibubuzuopinjielianwenshi。duizhengkelulaishuo,yiyizuiweizhongdadewuyishitayishushinianyanjiugongli,zai2003nianduzizhuanxiechubande《faguowenxueshi》。

zaizheibenshudexuyanzhong,zhengkeluyinyongfaguowenxueshijialangsong《faguowenxueshi·qianyan》zhongdeyiduanhua:“yibu《faguowenxueshi》yinggaishizhenggeyishengdewanmanjiejuhehouguo。”biqiyiwangdewenxueshixiezuo,zhengkeluzheibenduzizhuanxiedewenxueshijiangulexueshuzhuzuohejiaokeshudetedian,jibaohanzuojiadexiangxishengping、chuangzuodaolu、zhongyaozuopindeqingjiejieshaofenxi、zuojiasixiangyuyishutediandengjiaokeshudeguanchangxushu,yeshenrudifenxilemeigelishishiqidewenxue,xiangxichanshumeigewenxueliupaidefazhanzhuangkuang。

《shijiewenxue》zazhifayuwenxuebianjizhaodanxia,2017nianzaizazhishangbianjifabiaolezhengkelufanyidefaguorenjiabuliaier·de·jierlagede《putaoyaqingshu》。tagaosuwo,《faguowenxueshi》bianshitarichanggongzuozhongdegongjushu,budanxuduozhongyaozuopindegushigenggaijieshaoxiangxiquanmian,chuangzuosixiangyuyishuteseyezongjiedaowei。

“tade《faguowenxueshi》《faguoshigeshi》,neimehouyiben,nihuijuedexiedexianggushiyiyang。weishenmeni?neishijianlizaixiangxiyuedu、zixifanyizhishangcaixiededongxi。taxie《faguoshigeshi》,shizaitongdulefaguoshigezhihoucaixiede,buxiangyixieguoneiwenxueshi,mouzhongchengdushangyoubianxiedeweidao。”rangzhuzhenwujiyishenkedeshi,laoshiduiyuwenxuezuopinnaizhifawencihuideanshu。duboqijian,youyicitazaifanyiyishoufawenshigeshi,faxianjigecizaizidianshangchabudao,bianqulaoshibangongshiqingjiao。“zhenglaoshinaguolaiyihou,jiushuozheilianggeciputongzidianshangmeiyou,tashishenmeyisi,shudebudele,erqienaguolaizaiwodedayingaoshangzhijiefanyi,hezheyayun。”

zaizhuzhenwuyanzhong,laoshisuiranshiyigeshaoyanguayuderen,danyoushiyehenyouqu。2000nian,zhengkelu、sunjingyaoliangweilaoshidaizhezhuzhenwuhechenyihailiangweiboshisheng,yiqicongwuhandaoguangzhou、shenzhendengdizuodiaoyan。yici,dajiamaileyiheqiaokelidasuanzaibaoxianglichi,houlaifaxianzhaobudaole。zhengkeluyiweiyourenzangleqilai,rangdajiabaxinglixiangdoudakaichaleyibianfangcaizuoba。“youdeshihou,tahuixiangxiaohaiyiyangzhizheyuyigewentidedaan。”

tuixiuhou,zhengkeluhefuren、yingyuwenxuefanyijiazhubihengyiranjianchimeitiandaobangongshigongzuo,daolewanshangcaihuiqu。tamenmeitianlazheyigezhuangmanshugaodelaganxiang,zaixiaoyuanxieshouxiangbandeqingjing,beiyixieguowangshishengjiluxialai。huixiangqilai,zheiyiwufafuxiandexiaoyuanfengjing,yiranrangzhuzhenwuyinxiangshenke,“youqishineigebeiying,hendongren”。


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