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大法官金斯伯格:“钉子”的智慧

作者:admin 2020-10-17 我要评论

9yue18ri,meiguolianbangzuigaofayuandafaguanlusibadejinsiboge(ruth bader ginsburg)shishi。zaishishiqian6nianli,jinsibogeyijiliedeyiyizhexingxiangchengweiwangluohongrenhewenhuaouxiang。danduijintian...

9月18日,美国联邦最高法院大法官鲁斯·巴德·金斯伯格(Ruth Bader Ginsburg)逝世。在逝世前6年里,金斯伯格以激烈的异议者形象成为网络红人和文化偶像。但对今天的世界而言,她的遗产绝不只是持续的斗争精神。在一个充满分歧的社会中寻找共识,务实地推动社会变革和进步,是金斯伯格和她的时代留下的启示。

大法官金斯伯格

 

网络红人背后

shengao1.52mi,tizhongbudao90jin,lusi·bade·jinsibogekanqilairuobujinfeng。1999nian,tadiyicilihuanaizheng。tongshisangdela·dai·aokangna(sandra day o'connor)jianyitabazhiliaojiechangaidehualiaodouanpaizaixingqiwu,zheiyangjiulaidejiyongzhoumoxiuzheng,zhunbeixiayizhoudegongzuo。80niandai,aokangnacengjingheruxianaizuoguodouzheng。zheiliangweizuizaochengweimeiguolianbangzuigaofayuanfaguandenvxingdoucongweigaoguoyitianjia。

2009nian,75suidejinsibogeyinyixianaijieshouleshoushu。zhangfumading·jinsibogeshuotakanshangqujiuxianggangcongaosiweixinjizhongyingchulai。yushizaizhiliaoqijian,tapinqingleyiweizaitezhongkongjiangbuduifuyiguo12niandesirenjianshenjiaolian。tazhaolimeiyouquexiguorenheyicibianlun。2010nian,xiangruyimo56niandemadingqushi,renmendouyiweijinsibogehuibeiaishangjidao,keshi24xiaoshihou,tazhaochangchuxianzaileshenpanxishang。2014nian,jinsibogezaixinzangzhijiashoushushiyutianhoujiejianletadefensi。renmenwentaxiangduinianqingrenshuoxieshenme,taxianglexiang,shuo:“gaosutamen,woxiazhoukaishizuofuwocheng。”2018niandi,85suidelaotaitaiyoushuaileyijiao,zheduanlesangenleigu。“niyiweisangenleigujiunengzuzhizhengyima?”tadejianshenjiaolianshuo,“taxiangdingziyiyangjianying。”

“dingzi”shigeqiadangdebiyu:bujinjianying,erqiejianrui。zheizhengshi87suidejinsibogecishishiliujigongzhongdeyinxiang。2013nianchuntian,niuyuedaxuefaxueernianjixueshengxiana·kelizinike(shana knizhnik)kanlelianbangzuigaofayuanguanyutongxinghunyinandekoutoubianlun,talingganbaofa,yongxiutugongjurangjinsibogezaibiaozhunzhaoshangdaishanglemojing,nazheshouji,xianqiledafaguanchengweiwangluohongrendediyibolangchao。jitianhou,jinsibogezailingyiqianjiandeshenlizhongdangtingxuandutadeyiyiyijianshu。24xiaoshihou,yinyoujinsibogedaizheb.i.ghuangguandetxuwenshi。txushangyongliangzuantuanpinchule“shengminglangjie”(notorious)zheigeci。“shengminglangjie”laizizhumingshuochanggeshoukelisituofu·qiaozhi·latu·hualaishi(christopher george latore wallace)。tadebiechengshi“shengminglangjiedeb.i.g”。jinsibogedemingzisuoxie“r.b.g”yucixiangsi,jifalewangmindelinggan。youguoleyitian,niuyueyijiazazhixuanbujinsibogeyijingyubiangsi、xilali·kelindunyiqichengwei“wanghong”。

9月19日,位于华盛顿的联邦最高法院外,人们在纪念和哀悼金斯伯格

 

zhidaocishizhiqian,jinsibogeyijingchengleyigewenhuaouxiang。zaimeiguo,tadexingxianghemingzizaiyingshichuangzuo、dianshijiemulipinfanchuxian。renmenweitapuxieleshuochanggequ。zhishaoyouliangkuanjiweijiuyi“shengminglangjieder.b.g”mingming。tadexiaoxiangbeizhizuochengpintiehua、meijiatuan,shenzhibeirenmenwenzaishenshang。renmenzhemiyujinsibogerouruowaibiaoheyinghezuofengdeqiangliefancha,gengzhemiyutazaifatingshangbuliuqingmiandifabiaoyijiandejianruitaidu。qishi,zaikaishi“zouhong”de2013nian,jinsibogejihushudiaolesuoyoutaguanzhudezhengyianjian。kezheiyiqiedouqiaqiaqihelehulianwangguyoudecaogenxingheduikangxing,cuchengleyigejijindeziyoudoushidehulianwangyangbanxushi。

shishishang,jinsibogehetade“wanghong”xingxiangbingbuwanquanduiwei。tadeweirenchushibingbuxiangwangluozhongchengxiandeneimeyouqu。hafodaxuefaxueyuanjiaoshoumaikeer·kelaiman(michael j.klarman)cengzai80niandaichuweijinsibogegongzuo。tayinxiangzuishenkedegushishi,dangnianhuashengdundeganlanqiuduihuodelechaojiwanguanjun,qingzhudeyouxingduiwuluguoxianfadadao,jinsibogeyilianyihuodiwenmishu:“shenmeshichaojiwan?”jinsibogerichangjihubuzuoxiantan,tazhicanjiayansuwentidetaolun。taxiguanyufanshifanfuzizhenjuzhuo,yizhiyuhetatanhuaderenchangchangweijiaotanzhongpinpinchuxiandemanzhangtingdungandaoganga。cengyoumianshizhezaimianshizhongtujiuzouchulejinsibogedebangongshi——tayiweitayijingbahuajiangwanle。

zaisishenghuoli,jinsibogechengdeshangshibaoshou、chuantongde。1933nian,zaishenzhongdedaxiaotiaozhong,tachushengzaiyigepinhandeniuyuebulukelinpimaofanzijiating。zhangfumadingqushideshihou,jinsibogeshenbaole4500wanmeiyuandecaichan。tadegerenpinweifeichangshangliushehui:reaigeju,xihuanjingqiaoangguidefushi,youshihouhaihuilaopaididaishangzhangshoutao,duiyumaixieyouqirezhong。tayeshichuantonghunyinjiatingshenghuodeyongdun。qianxienian,zaiyichanghafodaxuefaxueyuanweitajubandewancandianlishang,jinsibogejiaodaonvxueshengmenshiyeyujiatingliangquandeshenghuoyouzhuduohaochu:“renmenchangshuo,ruguoniyaopadaoshudezuidingduanjiubixuxishengjiating,tingdaozheizhonghuashiwozongshihenfan。”

jintiandejinsibogebeixuduonvquanzhuyizhefengweiguigao,renmenchengsongtazaizuoweilvshihedafaguandezhiyeshengyazhong,zainvxingpingquanshangzuochudegongxian。rongyibeiwangquedeshi,suiranjinsibogedegongxianshigemingxingde,dantali“jijin”erzixiangqushenyuan。zaishangshijiliuqishiniandaichongmanchuanqisecaidexingbiepingquanyundongzhong,tameiyoucanjiaguorenheyiciyouxing。

jinsibogejuefeimeiyouliyouzheiyangzuo。1956nian,tajinruhafoduyanjiusheng。500duomingfaxuexueshengzhong,nvshengzhiyou9wei。tamenbubeiyunxujinrutushuguan。youjiaoshourenweinvshenggenbentingbudongfaxue,jihuduitamenshierbujian。yici,9weinvshengshouyaozaifaxueyuanyuanzhangjiachifan。zheiweiyuanzhangtanqiziji6nianqiankaishiranghafofaxueyuanluqunvshengdeweidashiji,wenlezaizuosuoyounvshengyigewenti:zhanjuleyigebenyingshuyunanshengdefaxueyuanxiwei,tamenyouhezhengdangjieshi?nvshengmenbeizheigewentinongdeshouzuwucuo。lundaojinsibogehuidadeshihou,tayinweijinzhangbuandiniudongshuangjiao,bayuanbenfangzaituishangdeyanhuigangdafanzaidishang,yanhuisadedaochudoushi。“woxianggenglejiewozhangfuzuodeshi,”tagunongdao,“zheiyangwocainenggenghaodilijieta,zuoyigetiliangtadehaoqizi。”

jinianhou,dangjinsibogeyidingjiandechengjicongfaxueyuanbiye,tafachuquderenheqiuzhixindouzhinengdedaoyifenglengbingbingdehuifu:“buhaoyisi,womenbuzhaonvren。”houlai,yinweiguzhukeyiyihuaiyunweiyouhefadijieguyunfu,jinsibogecengzaidiercihuaiyunshixuanzeyinmanshishi。

duiyuzishendechujinghesuochudeshidai,jinsibogeyizhibaochizhewenhekezhidexingxiang。taconglaibushixianfengguannianchaoliulangjianshangdenongchaoer。shangshiji70niandai,jinsibogeyouyiciyunvxueshengtongqufating,xueshengmenjilizhuzhangtagaijianchirangfaguanmenyong“nvshi”erbushi“furen”chenghuta。zheigebuyihunyinzhuangtaichenghunvxingdefangshizaidangshigangchuxianbujiu,shizhengqunvxingquanlideshimaozuofa。jinsibogeduixueshengshuo:“wojuedingbuzaichenghufangshishangdajingxiaoguai。jiuchenghufangshibianlun,neibingfeiwochutingdeyuanyin。”

2020年4月10日,金斯伯格主持的一场入籍仪式

 

审时度势

jinsibogezhisuoyideyizouxiangweida,juebuzhishiyinweitazugoujianrui,gengzhongyaodeshitayiyansuwushidetaiduhuiyinglezijisuomianduideshidaiketi。

jinsibogezainvxingpingquanshangzuochudegongxianzhuyaojizhongzai1970niandao1980niande10nianjian。neishihou,tashimeiguogongminziyoulianmeng(american civil liberties union,jianchengaclu)delvshi。aclushiyigedaxingfeiyinglizuzhi,yihanweiheweihumeiguoxianfaheqitafalvfuyugongminxiangyoudegerenquanliheziyouweizongzhi。zuoweilvshi,jinsibogemianlindediyigezhongyaowentijiushi:naxieguansiyinggaida。

1973nian,zaifutejijinhuidezizhuxia,jinsibogecengzuzhiguoyichanghuiyi,tabaquanguoshangxiasuoyouchulinvquansusongdelvshijizhongdaoyiqi,changshimingqueshouyaorenwu,jinxinggongzuofenpei。jinsibogezuiguanxindewentishi:“qufenchunaxieanjianshiheyouzuigaofayuanzuochupanjue,naxieanjianhaibuyingtijiaozuigaofayuan。”yigeanlibaizaitamenmianqian:“daixi(daisy)、xueli(sheryl)heqiong(joan)”yuyizhigouhesanzhimaoyiqishenghuozaixiangxiadeyidongjingzhidafangzili,xiwangshouyangjigehaizi,dan“dangdishouyangjigoujujueletamen,yuanyinshiyouchuanyan(chuanyanshizhende)shuodaixihexuelishiyiduinvtongxinglian,erqiewulunruhe,sangechengnianrenshuobushangshiyigejiating,zuiduosuanshiqunjutuanti”。

xuduorendouduizheigeanziganxingqu。quanguofunvzuzhideshouxilvshixierweiya·luoboci(sylvia roberts)juede:“renheyunvxingxiangguandeshiqingdouhenzhongyao。”faxuejiaoshoubabala·babukeke(barbara babcock)renwei:“nvtongxinglianshidenvxingyougengdadeziyouquxuanzeshenghuofangshi,yeshidenvrenhenanrendouzhengtuoleguyoudexingbiejiaose。”nvquanyundongrenshiyezhichidazheigeanzi,yinwei“henduonvxingdoushuonvtongxinglianzouzaiyundongzuiqianyan”。keshijinsibogetichulexiangfandeyijian。“bingbushisuoyounvquanwentidouyinggaizaixianzaitiqisusong,”tashuo,“yinweiyouyixiezhudinghuibaisu。kaolvdaomuqiandezhengzhifenwei,haikenengzuaiwomentuijinnvquanfalvdezhengtijincheng。”“weishenmelvshijingranqukaolvshenmewentiyinggaiyouxian?”yiminglvshibujiedifanwen。

zheicihuiyi20nianhou,1993nian,bier·kelindunzongtongtimingjinsibogedanrenlianbangzuigaofayuanfaguan。danhenxianran,20nianqian,zheiweiacludelvshiyijingzaiyongdafaguandeshiyekandaizijidegongzuo。zainvquanzhuyiyundongzhekanlai,congpingdengxinchoudaoduotaiquandeyixiliequanlidoushitianjingdiyide,danlianbangzuigaofayuanfaguanmenmianduidexianshishi,xuduowentidoushiguansheguannianxuanzehedaodexinyangdeshehuiwentihezhengzhiwenti。suizheshidaibianqian,shifeiyezaibuduanbianhua。

2005年4月23日,参议员奥巴马和里德贝特见面。金斯伯格是《莉莉·里德贝特公平薪酬法》的重要推动者

 

yizhongzupingquandejinchengweili,1868nian《meiguoxianfadishisitiaoxiuzhengan》jiujinzhilezhongzuqishi,dan“qishi”jiedingjinglimanzhangdeyanhuaguocheng。1890nian,luyisianneizhoutongguole《gelichexiangfa》,guidinggaizhoutielugongsibixuweibairenheyouserenzhongtigongpingdengdangelidechexiang;renherenbunengshiyongbushuyuqizhongzudechexiangzuowei,weizhejiangshoudaoxiangyingdechengfa。yongyouheirenxuetongdechengkepulaixijujueshiyongheirenzhuanyongchexiang,jiangluyisianneizhouzhengfugaoshangfating,zuizhongsuzhilianbangzuigaofayuan。jieguo,zai1896nian,dafaguanmenyi7∶1detoupiaojieguoxuanbuluyisianneizhoudefalvbingbuweixian。qiliyoushi:“gelibudengyuqishi,zhishiquerenlefusebutongdaozhidechabie,zhiyaoweiheirentigonglepingdengdesheshi,zhouzhengfujiuyouquanzaizhouneishishizhongzugelidefalv。”

zaijintiankanlai,“gelidanpingdeng”depanjuelingrenfeiyisuosi,danzhidao1954nian,lianbangzuigaofayuande9weidafaguancairendingzhongzugelizhidushiheirendirenyidengdexiangzheng,zai“bulangsutuopikajiaoyuweiyuanhuian”zhongyi9∶0depiaoshujieguocaijue“gelidanpingdeng”deyuanzebunengyongyugonggongjiaoyulingyu。

manzhanglichengdebeihouluojishi:dafaguanmensuiranyouquancaidinglianbanghegezhouderenhefalvweixianershiqibubeicaiyong,danrenhefalvdoushiyouzhouyihui、lianbangyihuizheixieminxuanlifajiguanzhidingde。yaozuochurenhetuidongshehuibiangedepanjue,jiubudebukaolvdangshideshehuipubianyijian。yizhongjinbudeguandianyaocongshaoshurenyijianbianweishehuigongshi,biranjingliyigejiaozhangdelishijieduan。

shangshijiliuqishiniandaimeiguoruhuorutudedierbonvquanzhuyiyundongzhong,yundongjiamenhenxiangyicuerjiu:tongguo《pingdengquanlixiuzhengan》(era)guiding“meiguohuorenhezhoubudeyinxingbieerboduohuoxuejianfalvguidingdequanlipingdeng”。qishizheigexiangfazaishangshiji20niandaijiuyijingbeitichule。1972nian,erazaimeiguocanzhongliangyuanbiaojuetongguo,tijiaozhizhoulifajigou。anzhaoguiding,zai1979nian3yue22riqiandedao3/4gezhou(ji50gezhouzhongde38ge)depizhun,erajikeshengxiao。xianshishi,erameiyouhuodezugoudezhichi。jishizainvxingneibu,daodegainianhejiatingjiazhitixidegenbenchayiyegouchengleshenkedefenlie。“fanerayundong”delingdaozhefeilisi·xielafuli(phyllis schlafly)jiushiyiweinvxing。zhidaojintian,erahaishigexuanerweijuedewenti。

jinsibogezoudeshiyitiaojianjinluxian。tadecelveshicongxiaochuzheshou,zhugejipo。tazixibianbiezheyitiaobianjie:zainaxiewentihenaxielingyu,shehuiyoulejieshounannvpingquandejichu,takeyiyonglituiyiba,rangfalvbangzhushehuiwanchengbiange。

jinsibogeyizhizihaoyuzijidui“nachangzhanggenggaida”depanduanli。70niandai,tazaizuigaofayuanqudedeyixiliechenggongdoushijutiwushi、jianweizhizhude。tazailianbangzuigaofayuandadediyigeguansishishalun·fulangdiluohekongjundejiufen。fulangdiluoshiyimingkongjunshaowei,daxuebiyehoujielehun,ranhoujiarulekongjun。henkuaitajiufaxian,qitayihunnantongshidouyoufangwubuzhu,zijiquemeiyou。tadaoxinchoubumenxunwen,gongzuorenyuanrenweinvxingmeiyoufangwubuzhushihenzhengchangdeshi,erqieshuokongjunyuanyizhaotajinlai,tajiuyinggaijuedeqingxingle。fulangdiluokunjingdebeihoushiyizhongpubiandeshehuirenshi:nanxingcaishiyangjiazhiren。“duixingbiedequbieduidai,hanyoubupingdengdepingjiatixi。xianzaideyixiechuantongguannian,jiangnvxingzaizhichangshoudaodebugong,meihuawei‘baohunvxing’。”zaizuigaofayuan,9weinanxingdafaguanwuyidaduanjinsibogededangtingchenshu,8gerenweitatoulezanchengpiao。

jinsibogebingbuzhiweinvxingdaguansi。1975nian,tabasidifen·weisenfeierde(steven wiesenfeld)daidaolezuigaofayuan。weisenfeierdedeqizibuxingsiyunanchan,erhaizicunhuoxialai。yinweiyaoduzizhaoliaohaizi,tabudebuciqugongzuo,jingjilaiyuanchenglewenti。tafaxian,zuoweiyigeguanfu,tawufaxiangguafuyiyanghuodezhengfubutie。jinsibogetongguozheigeanzizhengminglequfenduidaixingbiedezhengce,budanhuiweijinvxing,yetongyangsunhainanxingdeliyi,jiyuxingbiedeqishishishishangshanghailemeiyigeren。

zheixieanjiankanqilaibugouhongda,yetanbushangjijin,danqiezhongxianshi,qiebuhuichupengmingandeshenjing。lianbangzuigaofayuanzaizheixieanjianshangzuochuzhichixingdecaijue,dounenggoubeishehuixiaohuahejieshou,jinyibucushizheixiepingquanguannianchengweishehuigongshi。

jinsibogecongburenweifalvyinggaiyuanyuanchongzaishehuisichaodeqianmian。zaitakanlai,zhenzhengcuchengshehuibiangedeshirendeguannian,erbushiyitiaofalv、yigepanjue。“renbukenengyixiazijiujieshouyigeguannian。shehuibiangexuyaozhubuleiji、xunxujianjin,zhenzhengde、kechixudegaibianxuyaoyibuyigejiaoyincaihuifasheng。”

fulangdiluoyiandefubishi10nianqian,1963nian,beidi·fulidanchubanle《nvxingdeaomi》,fengmimeiguo,xianqilenvxingjinruzhichangdelangchao。nvxingbuzaibeipubianrenweizhinengzuojiatingzhufu。fulangdiluodekunjingzhisuoyichansheng,qiaqiashiyinwei70niandaimeiguokongjunzaidalizhaomunvxingcanjun,tamenzaixuanchuanguanggaolixiedao:“sheishuonvrenjiugaibeixianzhizaisandianyixiandeshenghuozhong,nandaoshenweinvxingjiubiewuxuanze?jiarumeiguokongjun,niyenengtansuoshijie!”

dafaguanmenbushishehuibiangedejueyuanti。xiaoweilian·yuesefu·bulunnan(william joseph brennan,jr.)dafaguanshijinsibogedezhichizhe,dantabingfeitianrandijieshounvxingpingquandezhuzhang。1970nian,bokelifaxueyuantuijianbanjichengjipaidiyideailisen·gelei(alison grey)jitazuonvshujiguanshi,talijihuijuedao:“jiwolingwaizhaoyige。”keshisannianhou,tajieshouletongyangyouxiudemasha·beierzong(marsha berzon)。masha·beierzonghaishigemama,danfuzhezhaoguhaizidezhongren,meitianxiawu5dianjiuyaolikaibangongshiququantuoyoueryuanjiehaizi。youyisideshi,bulunnandafaguanyehetayiyangcongconglikailebangongshi,yinweitadenverlihunle,daizhehaizihebulunnanzhuzaiyiqi。tawaichugongzuoshi,jiesongwaisunnvshangxiaxuedezhongrenjiuluozailewaigongbulunnandeshenshang。

上世纪70年代“反平权法案运动” 的领导者菲丽丝 · 谢拉弗利就是一位女性。大法官们面对的问题往往极为复杂,没有明确的是非之分

 

liuyisi·baoweier(lewis powell)dafaguancengxianggongzhongchengren,tarenweifunvdaduogengqingxiangyujiating,keneizhihou,tajieshouleyiweilvshizuozijideerxi。houlai,aokangnabeitimingchengweilianbangzuigaofayuandediyiweinvxingdafaguan。baoweierdeshouyaozhijujiushibaerxijieshaojiaokangna,anpaitacanjialeaokangnadejiuzhiyishi。baoweierzaiyishihoudejiaxinzhonghaixingzhibobodixiedao:“jinguanaokangnadafaguanyushangbairenwoshou,dantahaijidemimusi,bingchengzanleta。”

1993nian3yue,jinsibogezainiuyuedaxuefabiaolebeichengwei“maidixunyanjiang”dejianghua。bannianhoujijianglvxindedafaguanqiangdiao,hangaifanweiguoguangdefayuanpanjuezhihuishideqifan,bixuxiankaominjianyundonghelifajigouyinqishehuibiange,ranhoufayuancainenggaibianpanli,fouzefayuanguozaochashouganyuzhihuiqidaowanquanxiangfandexiaoguo。tazaiyanjiangzhongbiaodaledui“luoyisuweidean”panjuedebuman。

1969nian,yiweihuamingweijienei·luoyidefunvheqitarenyiqixiangdekesasizhouxianzhiduotaidefalingtichuletiaozhan。gaifalingguiding,chufeiyinweiweihuyunfudeshengming,zhouneiyilvjinzhifunvshishiduotaishoushu。1973nian,lianbangzuigaofayuanyi6∶3detoupiaojieguocaiding,dezhouxianzhiduotaidefalingguoyukuanfandixianzhileyunfuzairenshenguochengzhongdexuanzequan,qinfanle《meiguoxianfadishisitiaoxiuzhengan》suobaohudegerenziyou,gouchengweixian。biqijinsibogedangniandesusong,luoyianyinqidehongdongyaodadeduo。

biaomianshangkan,luoyianweihulenvxingdeduotaiquanli,danzaijinsibogekanlai,tacuodelipu,yinweita“taibaoshou”,you“taijijin”。tadebaoshouzaiyu,dangshidepanjuejianlizaidui“yinsiquan”deweihushang,bingmeiyoucongnvxingpingquandejiaoduqurenshizheigewenti。

tadejijinzaiyu,duiduotaiquandekaoliang,shejiduimuqinhetaierliangzheshengmingquandequanheng,zaimeiguodechuantongzongjiaodaodebeijingxiashijiweimingandewenti。jinsibogerenwei,shehuiyuanyuanweidaoduicidachenggongshideshike。luoyianzaochengdeshijixiaoguoshifumiande。zailianbangzuigaofayuanzuochupanjuehou,baoshoushilifaqilefanji。meiguoxuduozhoutongguolifa,zhizaoleduotaidecengcengxianzhitiaojian。misulizhouhenkuaijiutongguoleluoyianzhihoudeshoubu《fanduotaifa》,gaifayunxuyisheng、hushiheyiyuanzaiduotaishoushuweifandaode、lunlihuozongjiaoxinyangshijujueshishi。1974nian,misulizhoutongguoleyixiangfaan,gaifaanyaoqiuduotaishoushubixuhuodeyunfubenrendezhiqingtongyi,ruguoyihunhaixuhuodepeioudezhiqingtongyi,yijiruguoshiweiman18suideweihunweichengnianren,xuhuodeqifumudezhiqingtongyi。

zaiguoqujin40nianshijianli,zheizhongqingxingyizhiyanxu。qunian,meiguoyou7gezhoutongguofaansuoxiaoleyunxuduotaidefanwei。yalabamazhouzhouzhangkai·aiwei(kay ivey)zhengshiqianshuxinduotaifaan,guidingzaiyalabamazhou,duiyunqichuzairenhejieduandeyunfushishiduotaidouzhengshibeishiweizhongzui,kepanchu10zhi99nianyouqituxing,jibianshiqiangjian、luanlundaozhihuaiyundeqingkuangyebuliwai。baoshoupaibingbuhaiparenmenjiangcifaansuzhilianbangzuigaofayuan,zheiyangyilai,tamenzhenghaoyoujihuirangdafaguanmentuifanluoyiandepanjue。

和而不同

bier·kelindunhoulaizaizichuan《wodeshenghuo》(my life)zhonghuiyitatimingjinsibogechengweilianbangzuigaofayuanfaguandeliyou:“jianmianzhihou,worenweitajubeichengweiyimingweidafaguandeqianli,qimatakeyizuodaoxindafaguanxuyaozuodesanjianshiqing:genjudangshirendegongzuierbushitamendeyishixingtaihuoshenfenlaidingan;kenengdehua,yubaoshoudegonghedangdafaguanhezuoyidachengyizhiyijian;biyaodehua,zeyonggandiyutamenkangzheng。”

congmouzhongyiyishangshuo,jinsibogedeshenshenwushiyudaoleyigezhengquedeniandai。neigeshihou,ziyouhebaoshouhaiweiyoujintianzheiyangjiliededuikanghefenye。1981nian,aokangnachengweizuigaofayuandiyiweinvxingdafaguan。ciqian,tazaifalvjiejihumomowuwen。aokangnadefeiyuedeyiyuligenzhengfubaituogonghedang“xingbieqishi”kunjingdexuqiu。duonianlai,aokangnayizhishenchubaoshouzhenying,danzheibingbufangaitaheziyoupaibiedejinsibogexingxingxiangxi。aokangnagoumaibingbaocunle《daxiyangyuekan》1970nianfaxingdenvxingtekan。tateyiba《nvxingxiangyaodeshishenme》(what women want)zheipianwenzhangdeyiyezheleqilai,shangmianjizaizhemeiguomeiyijizhengfuduinvxingqubieduidaidefalv。1992nian,baoshoupaixianqidesusongchayidianjiutuifanleluoyian,shiaokangnatouchuleguanjiandeyipiao。

1995nian,yigezaimeiguonvquanyundonglishishanghuaxianongmozhongcaiyibideanzilaidaolezuigaofayuan:meiguosufujiniyaan(united states v.virginia)。fujiniyazhouyouyigehexidianjunxiaoqimingdefujiniyajunshixueyuan,jianxiaoyilaicongbuzhaonvsheng。lianbangsifabujiedaolebeijujuedenvxingxueshengdetousuhou,bajunxiaogaoshangfating。junxiaodeteshuxing,shitabeishiweibaoshoupaizuihoudebaolei。zuizhongpanjueshijunxiaobaisu,toupiaojieguo8∶1。1996nian6yue,zhanzaixuandupanjueweizhishangdeshijinsiboge。talaidaozuigaofayuancaisannian,zilishangqian。genjuguanli,xuandupanjuedefaguanrenxuanyoutoupiaoshiduoshuyifangzhongzilizuilaodedafaguanzhiding。yuanben,huodezheigeguangrongzhidingderenshiaokangna,danaokangnashuo,zheigeanzidepanjuedangranyoujinsibogelaixie。erjinsibogezaixuandupanjueshi,teyitidaoleaokangnazai1982nianxiedeyifenpanjueshu,tasuoshejidehegensumixixibianshilishishangdiyigejinzhinannvfenxiaodeanzi。

zailianbangzuigaofayuan,jinsibogezuihaodepengyoushiandongning·sikaliya(antonin scalia)dafaguan。tamenyiqitinggeju,yiqiguoxinnian,jubanlianggejiatingdejuhui,yiqidaoguowailvxing。zaiyindu,tamentongchengyitoudaxiang。sikaliyazuozaiqianmian,tadiaokandao:woyiweinvquanzhuyizherenheshihoudoubuganrenhou。renmenjingtanyuzheiduanyouyi。congfaxuelinianshangkan,jinsibogehesikaliyajihushisudi。tazhichisixing,tuidongzongjiaojinrugonggonglingyu,yanezhongzupingquancuoshi,youqifanduiduotaixingwei。jinsibogecengzheiyangjieshiliangrendeguanxi:“yigehenhaoderen,yekenenghuiyouhenhuaideguandian。”

gengzhongyaodeshi,jinsibogedepanjuejunshijiyutajianshoudesifayuanzeerfeizhengzhipianhao。tacengzaiyanjiangzhongshuo:“nimenrenweiduotaiyeshiyixiangquanli?neimeiwenti。xianfasuiranmeiyoutandaozheigewenti,danshizaiminzhushehui,nimenkeyilifachuangzhizheixiangquanli。zheikeyishiyixiangfalvquanli,danbunengqiangxingshuotashixianfaquanli。xianfaquanlibunengyoufayuanshuoshenmejiushishenme,shenzhirongrenrenmenshasiyigetaier。xianfabushirenrenbianlaibianqude,tayingdangzuzhigaibian,shenzhiyanhuangaibian。”congmouzhongyiyishangshuo,tahejinsibogeshiyizhide。

2016nian2yue,sikaliyadafaguanzaiwaichudaliedujiashixinzangbingfazuoqushi,jinsibogeweitaxiexialeyipianganrendedaowen。“danggeju《sikaliya/jinsiboge》jiejinweishengshi,nangaoyin(sikaliya)yunvgaoyin(jinsiboge)laileyiquerzhongchang:‘womenshibutongde,womenshiyizhide。’butong,zaiyuwomenduiwenbendejieshishang;yizhi,zaiyuwomenduixianfayuwomensuofuwudezhidudechongjingzhong。……womenmeimeiyijianxiangzuo,dandangwodaibiaofatingzhuanxieyijianershoudaoyifensikaliyadeyiyishi,wozuihoufabiaodeyijianmingxianshengyuwodechugao。……nenggourenshitazheiweitongshiyuzhenzhongdepengyou,shiwodexingyun。”

2006nian1yue,aokangnaweizhaoguhuanbingzhangfulikailelianbangzuigaofayuan。“woxiangyonggudulaixingrongzijizaishenpanxishangdechujing。”jinsibogezaiyinianhoudeyicifangtanzhongshuo。neiyinian,taxuanduleyipianzhongyaodeyiyiyijianshu。

lili·lidebeite(lily ledbetter)kuai40suishizaiguteyiluntaichangweiyualabamajiazidengshidegongchangzhonghuodeleyifengongzuo,tayikaozijidenulichengweilequyujingli,yutatongjidejibendoushinanxing。1998niantakuaituixiushishoudaoleyizhangzhitiao,tacaidezhizijiyizhiyilaidegongzidiyutongdengzhiweidenanxing,tameiyueshouru3727meiyuan,ertongdengzhiweishouruzuididenanxinggongzishi4286meiyuan,zuigaodeyou5236meiyuan。lidebeiteqisuleguteyigongsi,2006nian,anjiandadaolianbangzuigaofayuan。

2007nian5yue,dafaguanmenyi5∶4detoupiaojieguofoujuelelidebeitean。fanduipiaodetouchuzherenkeguteyiluntaichangdequbieduidaishicuowude,dantamenjianchi,yiju1964niantongguode《gongminquanlifaan》diqitiao,duixinchoudesuopeixuyaozaiqinhaifashengzhiriqi180rineiqisu,lidebeitechaoguolesusongshixiao。

jinsibogeshidangshiweiyidenvxingdafaguan。tazaiyiyiyijianzhongyizhenjianxuedizhichu,benyuanduoshudafaguanmenbulijiehuobuguanxin,nvxingzaizhichangzhongkenengshoudaode,danquexianweirenzhidexinchouqishi。“gongzichabiejingchangyixiaoshueleijidexingshifasheng,zhengrulidebeiteanjianzhongdeyiyang,zheishideduiyuqishicunzaidefanying,zhiyoujinglixiangdangzhangdeshijianhoucaizhujianzengzhang,genghekuang,guzhuwangwangxiangguyuanyinmanguyuanxinchouyutarenxinchoubijiaodexinxi。”

gujunfenzhanbingbunengzuzhijinsiboge,tajiangzheigewenticongfayuantidaoleguohui。tarenwei,zaizuigaofayuanduifatiaojinxinglezhuoliejieshideqingkuangxia,yinggaiyouguohuijixulingdaodouzheng。2009nian,aobamazongtongqianshutongguole《lili·lidebeitegongpingxinchoufa》。aobamabagaifaandefuzhipinzhuangbiaoqilaidangzuoliwusongjilejinsiboge,tazaishangmianxiexialeyijuhua:“ganxieninweichuangzaoyigegengpingdeng、genggongpingdeshehuierzuodegongzuo。”

zaineiyihou,shehuijihua、dangpaizhengzhiyuyanyulie。telangpujiuzhimeiguozongtongyilai,taxingyundihuodelesancirenmingdafaguandejihui。lianbangzuigaofayuanweinengzaizhengzhihuahebaoshouhuadelangchaozhongxingmian,cengjingdeheerbutongbianderijianxique。zairenzhidezuihoujinianli,jinsibogepinpinfabiaoyiyi。zai2012dao2013nianshenpannianduzhong,taxuandulewupianyiyiyijianshu,zheigeshuzidapolejinbangeshijidejilu。

zheishijinsibogeduikangxinshidaidefangshi。renmenzhuyidao,tahecongqianyiyangguayan,tameiyoushejiaozhanghao,jihubujieshourenhemeitidecaifang,danshitazhujiangaibianleyiyiyijianshudefengge,kaishirangtamenbiandetongsuyidong,yiyuchuanbo。tayongbaolewangluoduitaderechen:ruguobunengyingxiangcaijue,neijiuquyingxiangdazhong。2016nian,jinsibogedafaguanbenlaijihuazaixilalizongtongjingxuanshengxuanhoutuixiu,rucibiankeyiyouxilalitimingyiweiziyoupaifaguanjietiziji。xuanjudejieguodapoletadexiwang。yushi,taxiangdingziyiyangjianchizhe。jiuzaiqushiqianjitian,jinsibogexiangsunnvkelala·sipeilashuo:“wozuireqiedeyuanwangshi,zaixinzongtongjiurenqian,wobuhuibeirenqudai。”


1.benzhanzunxunxingyeguifan,renhezhuanzaidegaojiandouhuimingquebiaozhuzuozhehelaiyuan;2.benzhandeyuanchuangwenzhang,qingzhuanzaishiwubizhumingwenzhangzuozhehelaiyuan,buzunzhongyuanchuangdexingweiwomenjiangzhuijiuzeren;3.zuozhetougaokenenghuijingwomenbianjixiugaihuobuchong。

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